Russia's Nuclear Fuel Cycle
(Updated April 2014)
- A major increase in uranium mine production is planned.
- There is increasing international involvement in parts of Russia's fuel cycle.
- Exports are a major Russian policy and economic objective.
Russia uses about 3800 tonnes of natural uranium per year. After enrichment, this becomes 190 tU enriched to 4.3% for 9 VVER-1000 reactors (at 2004, now 13), 60 tU enriched to 3.6% for 6 VVER-440s, 350 tU enriched to 2.0% for 11 RBMK units, and 6 tU enriched to 20% (with 9 tU depleted) for the BN-600. Some 90 tU recycled supplements the RBMK supply at about 2% enrichment. This RepU arises from reprocessing the used fuel from BN, VVER-440 and marine and research reactors.
Uranium resources and mining
Russia has substantial economic resources of uranium, with about 10% of world reasonably assured resources plus inferred resources up to US$ 130/kg – 487,000 tonnes U (2011 'Red Book'). Historic uranium exploration expenditure is reported to have been about $4 billion. The Federal Natural Resources Management Agency (Rosnedra) reported that Russian uranium reserves grew by 15% in 2009, particularly through exploration in the Urals and Kalmykia Republic, north of the Caspian Sea.
Uranium production has varied from 2870 to 3560 tU/yr since 2004, and in recent years has been supplemented by that from ARMZ Kazakh operations, giving 7629 tU in 2012. In 2006 there were three mining projects in Russia, since then others have been under construction and more projected, as described below. Cost of production in remote areas such as Elkon is said to be US$ 60-90/kg. In November 2013 all Rosatom investment in mining expansion was put on hold due to low uranium prices.
Production in 2013 was 3135 tU, the increment coming from Priargunsky, with 2133 tU from there, plus 440 tU from Khiagda and 562 tU from Dalur.
Plans announced in 2006 for 28,600 t/yr U3O8 output by 2020, 18,000t of this from Russia* and the balance from Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Mongolia have since taken shape as outlined above, though difficulties in starting new Siberian mines makes the 18,000 t target unlikely. Three uranium mining joint ventures were established in Kazakhstan with the intention of providing 6000 tU/yr for Tenex (now ARMZ) from 2007: JV Karatau, JV Zarechnoye and JV Akbastau. (see below and Kazakhstan paper)
AtomRedMetZoloto (ARMZ) is the state-owned company which took over Tenex and TVEL uranium exploration and mining assets in 2007-08, as a subsidiary of Atomenergoprom (79.5% owned). It inherited 19 projects with a total uranium resource of about 400,000 tonnes, of which 340,000 tonnes are in Elkonskiy uranium region and 60,000 tonnes in Streltsovskiy and Vitimskiy regions. The rights to all these resources had been transferred from Rosnedra.
JSC ARMZ Uranium Holding Company (as it is now known) became responsible for all Russian uranium mine assets and also Russian shares in foreign joint ventures. In 2008, 78.6% of JSC Priargunsky, all of JSC Khiagda and 97.85% of JSC Dalur was transferred to ARMZ.
In March 2009 the Federal Financial Markets Service of Russia registered RUR 16.4 billion of additional shares in ARMZ placed through a closed subscription to pay for uranium mining assets, on top of a RUR 4 billion issued in mid 2008 to pay for the acquisition of Priargunsky, Khiagda and Dalur. In November 2009 SC Rosatom paid a further RUR 33 billion for ARMZ shares, increasing its equity to 76.1%.
In 2009 and 2010 ARMZ took a 51% share in Canadian-based Uranium One, paying for this with $610 million in cash and by exchange of assets in Kazakhstan: 50% of JVs Akbastau, Karatau and Zarechnoye, mining the Budenovskoye and Zarechnoye deposits. (An independent financial advisor put the value of ARMZ's stakes in the Akbastau and Zarechnoye JVs at $907.5 million.) Uranium One has substantial production capacity in Kazakhstan, including now those two mines with Karatau, Akdala, South Inkai and Kharasan, as well as small prospects in USA and Australia. In 2013 ARMZ completed the purchase of outstanding shares in Uranium One, and it became a full subsidiary of ARMZ.
Exploration expenditure has nearly doubled in two years to about US$ 52 million in 2008. In 2013 the government approved an exploration budget of RUR 14 billion ($450 million) through to 2020, principally in the Far East and Northern Siberia. Deposits suitable for ISL mining will be sought in the Transurals, Transbaikal and Kalmykyia. Other work will be in the Urals, Siberian, Far East Federal Districts (Zauralsky, Streltsovsky, Vitimsky and Vostochno-Zabaikalsky, and Elkonsky ore regions).
In December 2010 ARMZ made a $1.16 billion takeover bid for Australia's Mantra Resources Ltd which has a prospective Mkuju River project in southern Tanzania, which was expected in production about 2013 at 1400 tU/yr.
In 2009 the government accepted Rosatom’s proposal for ARMZ and Elkonsky Mining and Metallurgical Combine to set up the “open-type joint stock company” EGMK-Project. The state’s contribution through Rosatom to the EGMK-Project authorized capital will be RUR 2.657 billion, including RUR 2.391 billion in 2009 and RUR 0.266 billion in 2010. EGMK-Project is being set up to draw up the project and design documentation for Elkonsky Mining and Metallurgical Combine (see below).
The Russian Federation’s main uranium deposits are in four districts:
- The Trans-Ural district in the Kurgan region between Chelyabinsk and Omsk.
- Streltsovskiy in the Transbaikal or Chita region of SE Siberia near the Chinese and Mongolian borders.
- The Vitimsky district in Buryatia about 500 km northwest of the Chita region.
- The more recently discovered remote Elkon district in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) some 1200 km north-northeast of the Chita region.
Present production by ARMZ is principally from the Streltsovskiy district, where major uranium deposits were discovered in 1967, leading to large-scale mining, originally with few environmental controls. These are volcanogenic caldera-related deposits. Krasnokamensk is the main town serving the mines.
In 2008 ARMZ said that it intended to triple production to 10,300 tU per year by 2015, with some help from Cameco, Mitsui and local investors. ARMZ planned to invest RUR 203 billion (US$ 6.1billion) in the development of uranium mining in Russia in 2008-2015. It aimed for 20,000 tU per year by 2024. Total cost was projected at RUR 67 billion ($2 billion), mostly at Priargunsky, with RUR 4.8 billion ($144 million) there by end of 2009 including a new $30 million, 500 tonne per day sulfuric acid plant commissioned in 2009, replacing a 1976 acid plant.
Russian uranium mining
||Known resources: tU
Source: 2011 ‘Red Book’. * revised downward in 2012, but production adding 500 t in 2013.
A modest level of production is from Dalur in the Trans-Ural or Zauralsk uranium region. This is a low-cost (US$ 40/kg) acid in situ leach (ISL) operation in sandstones. Uksyanskoye is the town supporting Dalur mine. ARMZ’s 2008 plan had production at Dalur by acid ISL increasing from 350 to 800 tU/yr by 2019 (expanding from the Dalmatovskoye deposit to Khoklovskoye then Dobrovolskoye). In 2010 it produced 507 tU.
Streltsovskiy district, Chita/ Transbaikal region
Here, several large underground mines operated by JSC Priargunsky Industrial Mining and Chemical Union (PIMCU) supply low-grade ore to a central mill. Historical production from Priargunsky is reported to be 140,000 tU (some from open cut mines) and 2011 known resources (RAR + IR) are quoted as 115,000 tU at 0.159%U. Production is up to about 3000 tU/yr, about one tenth of it from heap leaching. In 2013 production was 2133 tU. The company has six underground mines operating: Mine #1, Mine #2, Gluboky Mine, Shakhta 6R, Mine #8 with extraction from Maly Tulukui deposit, and Mine #6 developing the Argunskoye and Zherlovoye deposits. In 2014 PIMCU is closing Mine #2 temporarily and will commence production from Mine #8. Mine #2 was making a loss in 2013 due to market conditions, and may be modernised to reopen in 2016. Some production has been exported to France, Sweden and Spain.
ARMZ's 2008 plan called for Priargunsky's production to be expanded from 3000 to 5000 tU/yr by 2020. Mine #6 construction began in 2009 for stage 1 production from 2015 to reach full capacity in 2019, at a cost of RUR 30 billion ($975 million), but this was put on hold in 2013. Stage 2 was to commence in 2024. Mine #8 began producing in 2011, towards phase 1 target capacity of 400 t/yr. Total cost of development will be RUR 4.8 billion (RUR 3.5 B for phase 1). However, a re-evaluation of reserves in 2012 suggested that mineable resources apart from Mine #6 amounted to only 32,000 tU. Mine #8 resources were quoted at 12,800 tU in December 2012.
Development of Olovskoye and Gornoye deposits* in the Transbaikal region near Priargunsky towards Khiagda would add 900 tU/yr production for RUR 135 billion ($5.7 billion). Measured resources together are 12,200 tU and inferred resources 1600 tU, all at 0.072% average (JORC-compliant). In 2007 newly-formed ARMZ set up two companies to undertake this, and possibly attract some foreign investment:
- Gornoye Uranium Mining Company to develop the Gornoye and Berezovoye mines in the Krasnochikoysky and Uletovsky districts in Chita, with underground mining and some heap leach (ore grade 0.226%U) to produce 300 tU/yr from 2014.
- Olovskaya Mining & Chemical Company to develop the Olovskoye deposits in the Chernyshevsk district of Chita region with underground, open cut and heap leach to produce 600 tU/yr from 2016.
In 2006 Priargunsky won a tender to develop Argunskoye and Zherlovoye deposits in the Chita region with about 40,000 tU reserves. Dolmatovsk and Khokhlovsk have also been identified as new mines to be developed (location uncertain).
Vitimsky district, Buryatia
Khiagda's new operations at Vitimsky in Buryatia about 500 km northwest of Priargunsky's operations in Chita region are starting from a low base - in 2010 production was 135 tU, rising to 440 tU in 2013. These are a low-cost (US$ 40/kg) acid in situ leach (ISL) operations in sandstones. Rudnik Kadala is the town for Vitimsky. JSC Khiagda has resources of 55,000 tU, with potential estimated at 100,000 tU. The 2008 ARMZ plan envisaged production from Khiagda's Vitimsky (Khiagdinskoye deposit) increasing from 150 to 650 tU/yr by 2013 and 1800 tU/yr by 2019. In 2013 the higher target was postponed. In 2014 Khiagda plans to continue construction on the main production facility and on the sulfuric acid plant
Elkon district, Sakha/Yakutia
ARMZ’s principal focus is development of the massive Elkon project with several mines in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) some 1200 km north-northeast of the Chita region. The Elkon project is in a mountainous region with difficult climate conditions and little infrastructure, making it a challenging undertaking. Production from metasomatite deposits is planned to ramp up to 5000 tU/yr over ten years, for RUR 90.5 billion ($3 billion), and 2020 start up is now envisaged. Elkon is set to become Russia's largest uranium mining complex, based on resources of over 270,000 tU. It will involve underground mining, radiometric sorting, milling, processing and uranium concentrate production.
Elkon Mining and Metallurgical Combine (EMMC) was set up by ARMZ to develop the substantial Elkonsky deposits. The Elkon MMC project involves the JSC Development Corporation of South Yakutia and aims to attract outside funding to develop infrastructure and mining in a public-private partnership, with ARMZ holding 51%. Foreign equity including from Japan, South Korea and India is envisaged, and in March a joint venture arrangement with India was announced. The Elkon MMC developments are to become “the locomotive of the economic development of the entire region”, building the infrastructure, electricity transmission lines, roads and railways, as well as industrial facilities, from 2010. Of 15 proposed construction sites, three have been tentatively selected: at the mouth of Anbar River, Diksi Village and Ust-Uga Village. The building of four small floating co-generation plants to supply heat and electricity to northern regions of Yakutia is linked with the Elkon project in southern Yakutia.
There are eight deposits in the Elkon project with resources of 320,000 tU* (RAR + IR) at average 0.146%U, with gold by-product: Elkon, Elkon Plateau, Kurung, Neprokhodimoye, Druzhnoye (southern deposits), as well as Severnoye, Zona Interesnoye and Lunnoye (see above). In mid 2010 ARMZ released JORC-compliant resource figures for the five southern deposits: 71,300 tU as measured and indicated resources, and 158,500 tU as inferred resources, averaging 0.143%U. ARMZ pointed out that the resource assessment against international standards will increase the investment attractiveness of EMMC. However, in September 2011 ARMZ said that production costs would be US$ 120-130 /kgU, which would be insufficient in the current market, and costs would need to be cut by 15-20%.
First production from EMMC was expected in 2015 ramping up to 1000 tU/yr in 2018, 2000 tU/yr in 2020 and 5000 tU/yr by 2024 based on the southern deposits as well as Severnoye and Zona Interesnoye. This schedule has slipped by about five years. Also, it is remote, and mining will be underground, incurring significant development costs. ARMZ and EMMC are seeking local government (Sakha) support for construction of main roads and railways to access the Elkon area, and make investment there more attractive.
JSC Lunnoye was set up by ARMZ at the same time as EMMC to develop a small deposit jointly by ARMZ (50.1%) and a gold mining company Zoloto Seligdara as a pilot project to gain practical experience in the region in a polymetallic orebody. Lunnoye is expected in full production in 2016, reaching 100 tU/yr. It has reserves of 800 tU and 13 t gold, and is managed by Zoloto Seligdara. ARMZ in mid 2011 expressed impatience with the rate of development.
The Federal Subsoil Resources Management Agency (Rosnedra) was planning to transfer about 100,000 tonnes of uranium resources to miners, notably ARMZ, in 2009-10, and 14 projects, mainly small to medium deposits, were prepared for licensing then. They are located mainly in Streltsovskiy (Chita), Zauralskiy (Trans-Ural) and Vitimskiy uranium regions.
The projects prepared for licensing include:
in Chita Region – Zherlovskoye, Pyatiletnee, Dalnee and Durulguevskoye;
in Republic of Buratiya – Talakanskoye, Vitlausskoye, Imskoye, Tetrakhskoye, and Dzhilindinskoye;
in Kurgan Region – Dobrovolnoye;
in Khabarovsk Territory – Lastochka;
in Republic of Tyva – Ust-Uyuk and Onkazhinskoye;
in Republic of Khakassia – Primorskoye.
All together these projects have 76,600 tonnes of reasonably assured and inferred resources, plus 106,000 tonnes of undiscovered resources.
In February 2009 Rosnedra published a list of deposits to be offered for tender in 2009. They are located in the Republic of Karelia, Irkutsk Region and Leningrad Region. In particular, Tyumenskiy in Mamsko-Chuiskiy District of Irkutsk Region is to be offered for development. Also, in the second quarter of 2009 Shotkusskaya ploshchad in Lodeinopolsky District of Leningrad Region will be put out to tender. In the Republic of Karelia the offer comprises Salminskaya ploshchad in Pitkyaranskiy District and the Karku deposit. None of these 2009 offerings has reasonably assured or inferred resources quoted, only "undiscovered" resources in Russia's P1 to P3 categories.
Foreign and private equity in uranium mining
In October 2006 Japan's Mitsui & Co with Tenex agreed to undertake a feasibility study for a uranium mine in eastern Russia to supply Japan. First production from the Yuzhnaya mine in Sakha (Yakutia) Republic is envisaged for 2009. Mitsui has an option to take 25% of the project, and is funding $6 million of the feasibility study. Construction of the Yuzhnaya mine is likely to cost US$ 245 million, with production reaching 1000 tU/yr by 2015. This would represent the first foreign ownership of a Russian uranium mine.
Following from previous deals with Tenex, in November 2007 Cameco signed an agreement with ARMZ. The two companies are to create joint ventures to explore for and mine uranium in both Russia and Canada, starting with identified deposits in northwestern Russia and the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Nunavut.
In addition to ARMZ, private companies may also participate in tenders for mining the smaller and remote uranium deposits being prepared for licensing in Russia. ARMZ is open to relevant investment projects with strategic partners, and Lunnoye deposit is an example where a private company Zoloto Seligdara is partnering with ARMZ.
Some RUR 340 million (US$10m) is being allocated in the federal budget to rehabilitate the former Almaz mine in Lermontov, Stavropol Territory, in particular Mine 1 on Beshtau Mountain and Mine 2 on Byk Mountain, as well as reclamation of the tailings dump and industrial site of the hydrometallurgical plant. The work will be undertaken by Rosatom organizations under Rostechnadzor. In 2008, rehabilitation of Lermontovsky tailings was included in a federal target program, and over RUR 360 million was allocated for the purpose.
Some uranium also comes from reprocessing used fuel from VVER-440, fast neutron and submarine reactors - some 2500 tonnes of uranium has so far been recycled into RBMK reactors.
Also arising from reprocessing used fuels, some 32 tonnes of reactor-grade plutonium has been accumulated for use in MOX. Added to this there is now 34 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium from military stockpiles to be used in MOX fuel for BN-600 and BN-800 fast neutron reactors at Beloyarsk, supported by a $400 million payment from the USA. Some of this weapons plutonium may also be used in the MHR high-temperature gas-cooled reactor under development at Seversk.
About 28% of the natural uranium feed sent to USEC in USA for enrichment, and contra to the LEU supplied from blended-down Russian military uranium, is being sent to Russia for domestic use. The value of this to mid 2009 was US$ 2.7 billion, according to Rosatom. See also Military Warheads as Source of Fuel paper.
Russia's uranium supply is expected to suffice for at least 80 years, or more if recycling is increased. However, from 2020 it is intended to make more use of fast neutron reactors.
Fuel Cycle Facilities: front end
Many of Russia's fuel cycle facilities were originally developed for military use and hence are located in former closed cities (names bracketed) in the country. In 2009 the conversion and enrichment plants were taken over by the newly-established JSC Enrichment & Conversion Complex, and in 2010 this became part of TVEL, a subsidiary of Atomenergoprom.
Seversk is a particular focus of new investment, with Rosatom planning to spend a total of RUR100 billion on JSC Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) over 2012-20 to develop its “scientific, technical and production potential in terms of nuclear technology.” SCC comprises several nuclear reactors and plants for conversion, enrichment, separation and reprocessing of uranium and separation of plutonium. In 2012 Rosatom announced that it was investing RUR 45.5 billion ($1.6 billion) in SCC at Seversk to 2017 for modernising the enrichment capacity and setting up a new conversion plant.
Russia’s total uranium conversion capacity is about 25,000 tU/yr, but only about half of this is used as of 2013.
The main operating conversion plant is at Angarsk near Irkutsk in Siberia, with 18,700 tonnes U/yr capacity. It is part of TVEL's JSC Angarsk Electrolysis & Chemical Combine (AECC), whose prime function is conversion and enrichment of uranium. In anticipation of the planned new plant at SCC Seversk however, this will be shut down, from April 2014.
TVEL also has conversion capacity to UF4 at Chepetsky Mechanical Plant in Glazoy, which will also be shut down.
TVEL plans to consolidate its conversion capacity at JSC Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) at Seversk, where some capacity already operates. In 2012 Rosatom said it would spend RUR 7.5 billion to set up a new conversion plant at SCC Seversk, to commence operation in 2016. The new plant is designed to have a capacity of 20,000 tU per year from 2020, including 2000 t of recycled uranium. Final approval for this was anticipated by the end of 2013.
The Elektrostal conversion plant, 50 km east of Moscow, has 700 tU/yr capacity for reprocessed uranium, initially that from VVER-440 fuel. It is owned by Maschinostroitelny Zavod (MSZ) whose Elemash fuel fabrication plant is there. Some conversion of Kazakh uranium has been undertaken for west European company Nukem, and all 960 tonnes of recycled uranium from Sellafield in UK, owned by German and Netherlands utilities, has been converted here. UK-owned recycled uranium has also been sent there.
Four enrichment plants totalling 24 million kg SWU/yr of centrifuge capacity operate at Novo-Uralsk near Yekaterinburg in the Urals, Zelenogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-45), Seversk near Tomsk and Angarsk near Irkutsk – the last three all in Siberia. The first two service foreign primary demand and Seversk specialises in enriching reprocessed uranium, including that from western Europe. As of early 2011, all are managed by TVEL, rather than Tenex (Techsnabexport).
||Capacity (M SWU/yr)
||JSC Urals Electrochemical Combine
||Can enrich to 30%,
||PA ElectroChemical Plant (ECP)
||8.7 (expanding to 12)
||JSC Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC)
||JSC Angarsk Electrolysis & Chemical Combine
The Novouralsk (Novo-Uralsk) plant is part of the JSC Urals Electrochemical Combine (UECC) in the Sverdlovsk region. It has operated 8th generation centrifuges since 2003, and is now starting to operate 9th generation units. The TVEL-Kazakh JV Uranium Enrichment Centre (UEC) is buying a 25% share of UECC and becoming entitled to half its output – up to 5 million SWU/yr (see below). In April 2013 the government commission for control over foreign investments approved this sale.
The Zelenogorsk plant is known as the PA ElectroChemical Plant (ECP) in the Krasnoyarsk region (120 km east of that city), and has ISO 14001 environmental accreditationand is starting to run 9th generations centrifuges. Rosatom plans to invest RUR 70 billion ($2.3 billion) by 2020 in developing the plant, with up to 90% of the new centrifuges installed there to make it the main enrichment plant. It is the site of a new deconversion plant (see below).
The Seversk plant is part of the JSC Siberian Chemical Combine (Sibirsky Khimichesky Kombinat – SKhK or SCC), Tomsk region, which opened in 1953. It is about 15 km from Tomsk. As well as the enrichment plant with substantial capacity for recycled uranium the site has other facilities, and several plutonium production reactors (now closed). It is starting to run 9th generations centrifuges.
Angarsk, near Irkutsk in Siberia, is part of the JSC Angarsk Electrolysis & Chemical Combine (AECC). It is the only enrichment plant located outside a "closed" city, nor has it had any defence role, and hence was to be the site of the new International Uranium Enrichment Centre (IUEC) and fuel bank.
Diffusion technology was phased out by 1992 and all plants now operate modern gas centrifuges, with fitting of 8th generation equipment now complete. This has a service life of up to 30 years, compared with half that previously. The last 6th & 7th generation centrifuges were set up in 2005, 8th generation equipment was supplied over 2004 to 2012, and about 240,000 units per year replaced 5th generation models. (6th generation units are still produced for export to China.) The technology is attributed by Nuclear.Ru to VNIPIET in St Petersburg, though Tenex took over responsibility for manufacturing the equipment through JSC Russian Gas Centrifuge and JSC Khimprom Engineering. Production was consolidated at Kovrov Mechanical Plant (KMP) in Vladimir region and the Urals Gas Centrifuge Plant (UZGT) in Novouralsk – some had been at Tocmash to 2012. The first 9th generation centrifuges were supplied to UECC early in 2013 from UZGT, following 2012 production at KMP.
The UECC Novouralsk plant is the largest (10 M SWU/yr) and can enrich to 30% U-235 (for research and BN fast reactors), the others only to 5% U-235. The JSC Electrochemical Plant (ECP) at Zelenogorsk is 5.8 M SWU/yr and is introducing ISO9001 quality assurance system. In June 2011 Rosatom said the plant's capacity was now 8.7 M SWU/yr and it planned to increase that to 12 M SWU/yr by 2020 at a cost of RUR 45-60 billion with a view to exporting its services. In mid 2012 the first 8th-generation centrifuges were installed and commissioned here.
A significant proportion of the capacity of both plants – some 7 M SWU/yr – was taken up by enrichment of former tails (depleted uranium), including for west European companies Areva and Urenco. According to WNA sources, about 10,000 to 15,000 tonnes of tails per year, with U-235 assays between 0.25% and 0.40%, has been shipped to Russia for re-enrichment to about 0.7% U-235 since 1997. The tails were stripped down to about 0.10% U-235, and remain in Russia, being considered a resource for future fast reactors. The contracts for this work for Urenco and Areva ended in 2010.
A portion of the Zelenogorsk capacity, about 4.75 M SWU/yr, is taken up with re-enrichment of tails to provide 1.5% enriched material for downblending much of the Russian HEU destined for USA (though all the other three plants may have contributed over the 20 years).
Seversk capacity is about 3 M SWU/yr, and some recycled uranium (from reprocessing) has been enriched here for Areva, under a 1991 ten-year contract covering about 500 tonnes UF6. (French media reports in 2009 alleging that wastes from French nuclear power plants was stored at Seversk probably refer to tails from enrichment of the recycled uranium.) It is understood to be enriching the 960 tU of reprocessed uranium from Sellafield in UK, belonging to its customers in Germany and Netherlands, sent to Elektrostal in eight shipments over 2001-09.
In 2012 Rosatom announced that it was investing RUR 45.5 billion ($1.6 billion) in SCC at Seversk to 2017 for modernising the enrichment capacity and setting up a new conversion plant.
Angarsk (AECC) is the smallest of three Siberian plants, with capacity of about 2.6 million SWU/yr. In July 2011 TVEL confirmed that there were no plans to expand it. The International Uranium Enrichment Centre (IUEC) has been set up at Angarsk (see following IUEC section).
TVEL-Kazakh JV Uranium Enrichment Centre (UEC)
In the context of a December 2006 agreement with Kazakhstan, in 2008 Kazatomprom set up a 50-50 joint venture with Techsnabexport (Tenex) for financing a 5 million SWU/yr increment to the Angarsk plant, with each party to contribute about US$ 1.6 billion and hold 50% equity. It then appeared that initial JV capacity would be about 3 million SWU/yr, with first production in 2011. However, in 2010 Rosatom announced that this would not proceed, due to surplus world capacity, but other joint venture enrichment arrangements with Kazatomprom were offered, notably up to a 49% share in Novouralsk or Zelenogorsk.
After deciding that it would be uneconomic to expand capacity at Angarsk, in March 2011 it was announced that Kazatomprom would buy a share in Urals Electrochemical Combine (UECC) which owns the Novouralsk plant through its 50% equity in the TVEL-Kazakh JV Uranium Enrichment Centre (UEC), "instead of building new capacity at AECC" at Angarsk where UEC was originally established. In mid-2011 it was reported that Kazatomprom would acquire shares in UECC either directly (30%) or in the event as a 50% shareholder in UEC with TVEL, related to the need to enrich 6000 tU/yr. Over 2012-13 UEC acquired 25% of UECC, and UEC became operational in the second half of 2013, with access to 5 million SWU/yr – about half of UECC production. The cost of the Kazatomprom share, earlier estimated by it at $500 million, was not disclosed. The first batch of enriched uranium was shipped in November 2013.
Russia's W-ECP deconversion plant is at Zelenogorsk Electrochemical Plant (ECP). The 10,000 t/yr deconversion (defluorination) plant was built by Tenex under a technology transfer agreement with Areva NC, so that depleted uranium can be stored long-term as uranium oxide, and HF is produced as a by-product. The W-ECP plant is similar to Areva's W2 plant at Pierrelatte in France and has mainly west European equipment. It was commissioned in December 2009.
This is undertaken by JSC TVEL, which supplies 74 nuclear power plants in Russia and abroad as well as 30 research reactors and fuel for naval and icebreaker reactors. Its operations are certified against ISO 9001.
TVEL has the following fuel fabrication plants with combined capacity of 2500 t/yr finished fuel:
- The huge Maschinostroitelny Zavod (MSZ) at Elektrostal 50 km east of Moscow – known as Elemash.
- Novosibirsk Chemical Concentrates Plant (NCCP) in Siberia.
- Chepetsk Mechanical Plant (CMP) near Glazov in Udmurtiya which makes zirconium cladding and also some uranium products.
Most fuel pellets for RBMK and VVER-1000 reactors were being made at the Ulba plant at Ust Kamenogorsk in Kazakhstan, but Elemash and Novosibirsk have increased production. MSZ produces fuel assemblies for both Russian and west European rectors using fresh and recycled uranium. It also fabricates research reactor and icebreaker fuel. Novosibirsk produces mainly VVER 440 & 1000 fuel, including that for initial use in China. MSZ/Elemash is the principal exporter of fuel assemblies. Total production is about 1400 t/yr.
In late 2007 it was decided that MOX fuel production using recycled materials should be based on electrometallurgical (pyrochemical) reprocessing and vibropack dry processes for fuel fabrication, as developed at RIAR. The goals for closing the fuel cycle included minimising cost, recycle of minor actinides (for burning), excluding separated plutonium, and arrangement of all procedures in remote systems to allow for 'hot' materials.
There is no plan or provision to use MOX in light-water reactors.
FNR fuel fabrication, MOX
A 60 t/yr commercial mixed oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) is scheduled to start up at Zheleznogorsk (formerly Krasnoyarsk-26, 70 km NE of Krasnoyarsk) by 2014, operated by the Mining & Chemical Combine (MCC). This was built at a cost of some RUR 7 billion as part of the Federal Target Program and as the Russian counterpart to the US MFFF for disposition of 34 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium. It will make 400 pelletised MOX fuel assemblies per year for the BN-800 and future fast reactors. The capacity is designed to supply five BN-800 units. First production of fuel assemblies for Beloyarsk 4 is expected in 2014. It is being built in rock tunnels at a depth of about 200 metres.
Longer-term MCC Zheleznogorsk will produce MOX granules for vibropacked fuel using civil plutonium oxide, ex-weapons plutonium metal and depleted uranium. Initial capacity of 14 t/yr of granules was funded to RUR 5.1 billion (US$ 169 million) over 2010-12. The granulated MOX is sent to RIAR Dimitrovgrad for vibropacking into FNR fuel assemblies.
A small pelletised MOX fuel fabrication plant has operated at the Mayak plant at Ozersk since 1993, for BN-350 and BN-600 fuel (40 fuel assemblies per year), and it will supply some initial pelletised MOX fuel for BN-800 start-up. A new 14 tonne per year plant to fabricate dense mixed nitride fuel for fast neutron reactors is planned at PA Mayak, to operate from 2018. In the federal target program to 2020, RUR 9.35 billion (US$ 310 million) is budgeted for it. Later it may be expanded to 40 tonnes per year.
The Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (RIAR or NIIAR) at Dimitrovgrad, Ulyanovsk, has a small MOX fuel fabrication plant. This produces vibropacked fuel which is more readily recycled. Under the federal target program this was allocated RUR 2.95 billion (US$ 83 million) for expansion to produce 400 fuel assemblies per year, from 2012. Its main research has been on the use of military plutonium in MOX, in collaboration with France, USA and Japan.
Vibropacked MOX fuel (VMOX) is seen as the way forward. This is made by agitating a mechanical mixture of (U, Pu)O2 granulate and uranium powder, which binds up excess oxygen and some other gases (that is, operates as a getter) and is added to the fuel mixture in proportion during agitation. The getter resolves problems arising from fuel-cladding chemical interactions. The granules are crushed UPuO2 cathode deposits from pyroprocessing. VMOX needs to be made in hot cells. It has been used in BOR-60 since 1981 (with 20-28% Pu), and tested in BN-350 and BN-600 as part of a hybrid core (with some military plutonium). This was evaluated by OKBM and Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute.
The V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute has developed REMIX fuel. REMIX (from Regenerated Mixture) fuel is produced directly from non-separated mix of recycled uranium and plutonium from reprocessing used fuel with a LEU (16% U-235) uranium make-up. REMIX-fuel “can be repeatedly recycled with 100% core load in current VVER-1000 reactors and, correspondingly reprocessed many times.” In addition, the use of REMIX-fuel allows reducing consumption of natural uranium in VVERs by 20% at each recycle as compared with open fuel cycle. REMIX could serve as a replacement for existing reactor fuel.
In collaboration with TVEL, the Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) at Seversk is making test batches of dense nitride fuel for fast reactors, notably BREST-300. Test on the first uranium-plutonium fuel assemblies with this in the BN-600 reactor were due to start in September 2013. RUR 17 billion is budgeted for the fuel development. Construction of the pilot nitride fuel plant started in March 2014 with a view to operation from 2017, in time to produce fuel for the first BREST-300 reactor. Construction of the reactor is set to begin in 2016 for 2020 operation. A nitride fuel reprocessing facility is expected to come online at SCC in 2022.
TVEL's Moscow Composite Metal Plant designs and makes control and protection systems for nuclear power reactors.
International Uranium Enrichment Centre (IUEC)
The IUEC concept was inaugurated at the end of 2006 in collaboration with Kazakhstan, and in March 2007 the IAEA agreed to set up a working group and continue developing the proposal. In September 2007 the joint stock company Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Centre (JSC Angarsk IUEC) was registered and a year later Rostechnadzor licensed the Centre. Late in 2008 Ukraine's Nuclear Fuel Holding Company, SC Nuclear Fuel, decided to take a 10% stake in it, matching Kazatomprom's 10%, and this was effected in October 2010. Armenia finalised its 10% share in IUEC in May 2012 (2600 shares for RUR 2.6 million), while accession negotiations proceed with South Africa, Vietnam, Bulgaria, UAE, and others. Mongolia in 2010 was interested, in connection with Russian uranium interests there. Russia also invited India to participate in order to secure fuel for its Kudankulam plant. The aim is for Techsnabexport/TVEL eventually to hold only 51%. Each of the 26,000 IUEC shares is priced at RUR 1000.
Present equity in JSC Angarsk IUEC: TVEL 70%, Kazatomprom 10%, Ukraine 10%, Armenia 10%.
The centre is to provide assured supplies of low-enriched uranium for power reactors to new nuclear power states and those with small nuclear programs, giving them equity in the project, but without allowing them access to the enrichment technology. Russia will maintain majority ownership. IUEC will sell both enrichment services (SWU) and enriched uranium product. Arrangements for IAEA involvement were being sorted out in 2009, and in 2010 a feasibility study commenced on IUEC investment, initially for equity in JSC Angarsk Electrolysis & Chemical Combine (AECC) so that part of its capacity supplies product to IUEC shareholders.
The existing enrichment plant at Angarsk was to feed the IUEC and accordingly was removed from the category of "national strategic installations", though it has never been part of the military program. In February 2007 the IUEC was entered into the list of Russian nuclear facilities eligible for implementation of IAEA safeguards. The USA has expressed support for the IUEC at Angarsk.
Development of the IUEC was envisaged in three phases:
- Use part of the existing capacity at Angarsk in cooperation with Kazatomprom and under IAEA supervision.
- Expand Angarsk capacity (perhaps double) with funding from new partners by 2017.
- Full internationalisation with involvement of many customer nations under IAEA auspices.
In 2012-13 the IUEC website said that “the JSC IUEC has been established within the Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Complex, but it can use capacities of other three Russian combines to diversify production and optimize logistics.”
IUEC guaranteed reserve ("Fuel Bank")
In November 2009 the IAEA Board approved a Russian proposal to create an international guaranteed reserve or "fuel bank" of low-enriched uranium under IAEA control at the IUEC at Angarsk. This was established a year later and comprises 123 tonnes of low-enriched uranium as UF6, enriched 2.0 - 4.95% U-235 (with 40t of latter), available to any IAEA member state in good standing which is unable to procure fuel for political reasons. It is fully funded by Russia, held under safeguards, and the fuel will be made available to IAEA at market rates, using a formula based on spot prices. Following an IAEA decision to allocate some of it, Rosatom will transport material to St Petersburg and transfer title to IAEA, which will then transfer ownership to the recipient.
This initiative will complement a proposed IAEA "fuel bank" by making more material available to the IAEA for assurance of fuel supply to countries without their own fuel cycle facilities. The 120 tonnes is equivalent to two full fuel loads for a typical 1000 MWe reactor, and is (in 2010) worth some $250 million. In May 2012 it was announced that this IAEA ‘fuel bank” would be located at the Ulba Metallurgical Plant (UMZ) in Kazakhstan, which has 50 years experience in handling UF6.
Used Fuel and Reprocessing
Russian policy is to close the fuel cycle as far as possible and utilise recycled uranium, and eventually also to use plutonium in MOX fuel. However, its achievements in doing this have been limited – in 2011 only about 16% of used fuel was reprocessed. Rosatom’s head of used fuel management has said that the target for 2020 is 100%. He outlined several projects towards this at two sites:
- At Mayak Production Association in Ozersk, the RT-1 spent fuel reprocessing facility will be first updated, and then decommissioned in about 2030.
- At Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC) in Zheleznogorsk, the MOX fuel fabrication plant for fast reactors will be completed in 2014 (see above);
- At MCC the pilot demonstration center (PDC), for used nuclear fuel reprocessing will be completed by 2016;
- At MCC the full-scale RT-2 facility will be completed to reprocess VVER, RBMK and BN used fuel into mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel or into Remix — the regenerated mixture of uranium and plutonium oxides;
- At MCC the spent fuel pool storage is replaced by dry storage.
All used fuel is stored at reactor sites for at least three years to allow decay of heat and radioactivity. High burn-up fuel requires longer before it is ready to transport. At present the used fuel from RBMK reactors and from VVER-1000 reactors is stored (mostly at reactor sites) and not reprocessed. It is expected that used fuel in storage will build up to about 40,000 tonnes by the time substantial reprocessing gets under way about 2022. The materials from this will be burned largely in fast reactors by 2050, when none should remain.
In late 2007 it was decided that MOX fuel production using recycled materials from both light water and fast reactors should be based on electrometallurgical (pyrochemical) reprocessing. The goals for closing the fuel cycle are minimising cost, minimising waste volume, recycle of minor actinides (for burning), excluding separated plutonium, and arrangement of all procedures in remote-handled systems. This reprocessing route remains to be developed.
RT-1 reprocessing plant
Used fuel from VVER-440 reactors Kola 1-4 and Rovno 1-2 in Ukraine), the BN-600 (Beloyarsk) and from naval reactors is sent to the Mayak Chemical Combine's 400 t/yr RT-1 plant (Chelyabinsk-65) at Ozersk, near Kyshtym 70 km northwest of Chelyabinsk in the Urals for reprocessing. The original reprocessing plant at the site was hastily built in the mid 1940s, for military plutonium production in association with five producer reactors (the last shut down in 1990). The RT-1 plant started up in 1971 and employs the Purex process. It has reprocessed about 5000 tonnes of used fuel to 2012 and is reported to be running at about 100 t/yr capacity, following the loss of foreign contracts, but also that reprocessing does not keep pace with inputs, so some used fuel is stored there, along with vitrified HLW. About 93% of its feed is from Russian and Ukrainian VVER-440 reactors, about 3% from naval sources or icebreakers and 3% from BN-600. It earlier reprocessed BN-350 used fuel.
Recycled uranium is enriched to 2.6% U-235 by mixing RepU product from different sources and is used in all fresh RBMK fuel, while separated plutonium oxide is stored. High-level wastes are vitrified and stored. A project to upgrade the RT-1 plant and enable it to take VVER-1000 fuel is due to be completed in 2015. The 2009 federal program had it reaching 500 t/yr from 2012. However, after the commissioning of the RT-2 plant at MCC, it is due to be decommissioned about 2030. Used fuel storage capacity there is being increased from 6000 to 9000 tonnes.
Zheleznogorsk MCC, Pilot Demonstration Centre and RT-2 reprocessing plant
VVER-1000 used fuel is sent to the Mining & Chemical Combine (MCC) (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat - GHK) at Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26) in Siberia for storage. The site is about 60 km north of Krasnoyarsk. This fuel comes from three Russian, three Ukrainian and one Bulgarian plants. A large pool storage facility was built by MCC at Zheleznogorsk in 1985 for VVER-1000 used fuel, though its 6000 tonne capacity would have been filled in 2010. The facility was fully refurbished over 2009-10, and some dry storage capacity was commissioned in 2011. In December 2009 Rostechnadzor approved pool storage expansion to 7200 tonnes and in August 2010 MCC was seeking approval to expand it to 8400 tonnes capacity to allow another 6 years input. RBMK fuel is being transferred to dry storage there pending a final decision on reprocessing it.
A Pilot Demonstration Centre (PDC) for several reprocessing technologies is under construction by MCC at Zheleznogorsk at a cost of RUR 8.4 billion, to be commissioned by 2016 as a "Strategic Investment Project". Its initial capacity will be 100 t/yr, with later increase to 250 t/yr in 2018. It will have innovative technology including embrittlement by crystallization, and simultaneous gas, thermo and mechanical spent fuel assembly shredding. Initially it will deal with VVER-1000 fuel, later with fuel from fast reactors. It will effectively be the first stage of the large redesigned RT-2 plant at the MCC/GHK site to be operational about 2024. The cost of RepU product is expected to be some EUR 500/kg. It is suggested that the PDC “can be used for demonstration of the closed nuclear fuel cycle of thermal neutron reactors running on REMIX-fuel” as well as producing MOX fuel.
The RT-2 reprocessing plant at Zheleznogorsk is now on track for completion with 700 t/yr capacity. Originally it was planned to have two 1500 t/yr lines, but for some time the project was under review. Construction started in 1984 but halted in 1989 when 30-40% complete due to public opposition and lack of funds, though in 1993 it was officially reported as "under construction". It is now being redesigned and is expected to operate from around 2024, for both VVER-1000 and RBMK fuel, and also BN fuel. The facility could form part of the new Global Nuclear Infrastructure Initiative (see international section below).
At SCC Seversk a reprocessing plant for nitride fuel from BREST fast reactors is envisaged to operate from 2022, closing that fuel cycle.
Since 2004 an 8600 tonne dry storage facility for used fuel (INF DSF-2) has been under construction at Zheleznogorsk and the first stage was completed by the E4 Group at the end of 2011 at a cost of about US$ 500 million for the MCC/GHK. It is the largest dry storage facility in the world and will take 8129 tonnes of RBMK fuel, initially from Leningrad and Kursk power plants, followed by Smolensk. RBMK fuel is not presently economic to reprocess so has been stored at reactor sites, and when transferred to MCC from 2012 will be stored in hermetically sealed capsules filled with nitrogen and helium, inside a building but air cooled. The second stage of MCC dry storage will take VVER-1000 fuel currently in wet storage there and increase capacity to over 32,000 tonnes (25,000 t RBMK, 7000 t VVER), with work starting in 2015. The wet storage facility is to be decommissioned in 2026. Used fuel will be stored for up to 50 years, pending reprocessing.
(Three decommissioned graphite-moderated reactors which principally produced military plutonium, with associated underground reprocessing plant, are also at MCC Zheleznogorsk. The huge underground complex, 200-250 m deep, was originally established in 1950 for plutonium and weapons production.)
In June 2011 Rosatom announced that it was investing RUR 35 billion in MCC to 2030, including particularly MOX fuel fabrication. In February 2012 the figure was put at RUR 80 billion minimum.
Bilibino's LWGR used fuel is stored at site.
Other MOX plants
A small MOX fuel fabrication plant has operated at the Mayak plant at Ozersk since 1993. A 60 t/yr commercial MOX fabrication plant is under construction by MCC at Zheleznogorsk (the site of the ADE2 military plutonium production reactor). Another MOX plant for disposing of military plutonium is planned at Seversk (Tomsk-7) in Siberia, to the same design as its US equivalent. (Seversk had the other two dual-purpose but basically military plutonium production reactors, totalling 2500 MWt. One of these – ADE4 – was shut down in April 2008, the other – ADE5 – in June 2008.) See also Fuel Fabrication section above.
Russia's Duma passed a new Federal Law on Radioactive Waste Management in June 2011, after 19 months consideration and many amendments. It was passed by the state Council in July and then signed into law. It establishes a legal framework for radioactive waste management, provides for a national radwaste management system meeting the requirements of the Joint Convention on the Safe Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel and on the Safe Management of Radioactive Waste ratified by Russia in 2006. Rosatom and the National Operator for Radioactive Waste Management – FSUE NO RAO – will be responsible for coordination and execution of works associated with radwaste management, notably its disposal. The law establishes time limits for interim radwaste storage and volume limits for waste generators, and defines how they should bring wastes in condition suitable for disposal and transfer it to the national operator along with payment of disposal charges. Import and export of radwaste is banned. All newly-generated waste is the responsibility of its generators who will pay for its disposal and storage, with funds accumulated in the SC Rosatom’s bank account as a special fund.
Rosatom plans to draft two more laws: on decommissioning and used fuel management.
The National Operator for Radioactive Waste Management (NO RAO) is a federal-state unitary enterprise set up in March 2012 responsible for waste management and disposal. In the 2011 legislation it has been specified as the National Operator for handling all nuclear waste materials and the single organization authorized to carry out final disposal of radioactive waste, and also other related functions. Its functions and tariffs are set by government, notably the Ministry of Natural Resources. Its branches are at Zheleznogorsk in Krasnoyarsk, Seversk in Tomsk, Dimitrovgrad in Ulyanovsk and (from late 2013) Novouralsk in Sverdlovsk. Plans for disposal of low- and intermediate-level wastes are to be in place by 2018. It is expected to establish repositories for 300,000 m3 of LLW and ILW, and an underground research laboratory in Nizhnekansky granitoid massif at Zheleznogorsk near Krasnoyarsk for study into the feasibility of disposal of solid HLW and solid medium-level long-lived wastes by 2021. A decision on final HLW repository is expected by 2025.
The System of State Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and Radioactive Waste (SSAC RM&RAW) is intended to perform physical inventory testing of nuclear materials and radioactive waste at their locations, and carry out accounting and control of them at the federal, regional and departmental levels. In July 2013 Rostechnadzor issued five-year licenses to the three regional branches of NO RAO, for “activities associated with final disposal of liquid radioactive waste.”
About 32 million cubic metres of radioactive waste is to be disposed of within the framework of NO RAO’s program at a cost of about RUR 307 billion, according to Rosatom. NO RAO’s investment program runs to 2035 and includes capital investment in infrastructure of RUR 158 billion ($4.77 billion). Owners of the radioactive waste needing disposal are to provide 80% of that money, while the remaining 20% is to come from the federal budget. Thirty potential disposal sites have been identified in 18 regions, including Siberia, the Urals, the Volga region and the Northwest federal district in order of priority. Rosatom’s Social Council plays a major role in achieving public acceptance.
FSUE RosRAO is a company providing commercial back-end radwaste and decommissioning services for intermediate- and low-level wastes as well as handling non-nuclear radwaste. It commenced operation in 2009 under a temporary arrangement pending finalisation of regulations under the new legislation. It incorporates Radon, and now has branches in each of seven federal districts. RosRAO’s Far East Centre for Radioactive Waste Management (DalRAO) operates a long-term storage pad in Razboinik Bay for over 70 submarine reactor compartments, pending their recycling. Its northern centre is SevRAO, in the Murmansk region, is engaged in remediation of the sites of Navy Northern Fleet bases, and dismantling of retired nuclear-powered naval ships and submarines. RosRAO is envisaged as an international operator. RosRAO will become part of Rosatom’s Life Cycle Back-End Division (LC BED) in 2013.
No waste repository is yet available, though site selection is proceeding in granite on the Kola Peninsula. In 2003 Krasnokamensk in the Chita region 7000 km east of Moscow was suggested as the site for a major spent fuel repository. Then in 2008 the Nizhnekansky Rock Mass in Krasnoyarsk Territory was put forward as a site for a national deep geological repository. Rosatom said the terms of reference for the facility construction would be tabled by 2015 to start design activities and set up an underground rock laboratory. A decision on construction is due by 2025, and the facility itself is to be completed by 2035. Phase one of the facility is to be designed to hold 20,000 tonnes of intermediate- and high-level wastes, which will be retrievable. Pubic hearings on the Nizhnekansky granite were held in July 2012. The National Operator for Radioactive Waste Management envisages the establishment of an underground laboratory in the Yeniseysky area for these wastes and then no less than 9 years research. The Nizhnekansky Granite Massif in Krasnoyarsk Territory was identified in the November 2013 Regional Energy Planning Scheme as a planned repository site.
Low- and Intermediate-level wastes are mostly handled similarly to those in other countries. Radon has been the organisation responsible for medical and industrial radioactive wastes. It has had 16 storage sites for wastes up to intermediate level. Not far outside Moscow, the major Radon facility has both laboratories and disposal sites. Other near-surface storage facilities were in 2008 planned for Sosnovy Bor, Glazov, Gatchina, Novovoronezh, Kirovo-chepetsky, Murmansk, Sarov, Saratov, Bilibino, Kransokamensk, Zelenogorsk, Seversk, Dimitrovgrad, Angarsk, and Udomlya. In 2010 RosRAO planned to draft a general scheme with locations of radwaste repositories (from both nuclear power plant operations and nuclear weapons disposal) to be set up by 2020-2035. Sosnovy Bor in the Leningrad oblast was identified in the November 2013 Regional Energy Planning Scheme as a planned repository site for low- and intermediate-level wastes, and NO RAO has carriage of this.
However, Russia has also for many years used deep-well injection for low- and intermediate-level wastes from some facilities, notably Seversk, Zheleznogorsk and Dimitrovgrad. These are mainly wastes from reprocessing. A Central Europe review report in 1999 said that the wells ranged from 300 up to 1500 metres deep, and that Seversk was the main site utilising the method, with 30 million cubic metres injected. This practice has delayed Russian acceptance of an IAEA standard for radioactive waste disposal, since it has no packaging or engineered barriers and relies on the geology alone for safe isolation. The new 2011 Radioactive Waste Management law said that “Underground disposal of liquid radioactive waste may be executed, in accordance with the requirements of federal regulations and rules, inside geological formations (‘collector horizons’) as limited by the bounds of the area allotted, within which liquid radioactive waste must remain localised.” In the November 2013 Regional Energy Planning Scheme two active sites for deep geological disposal of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) are identified: Dimitrovgrad, Ulyanovsk oblast, on the NIIAR site 1300 km SE of Moscow, and a northern one: Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarsk territory in Siberia, on the MCC site. A preliminary finding of the 2013 IRRS mission from IAEA was that “License conditions related to the safety assessment and safety case of liquid radioactive waste disposal facilities should be revised.”
In 2008 there were tentative plans to build 4 to 6 regional waste repositories for low- and intermediate-level waste containing short-lived radionuclides in North-West, East-European, South Urals regions and in European South of Russia. For wastes containing long-lived radionuclides, establishing one or two repositories in Siberia and South Urals was envisaged.
Plant 20 at PA Mayak, Ozersk, is understood to be a military plutonium processing facility employing 1900 people. There was a plan to close it down and transfer operations to the Siberian Chemical Combine at Seversk as part of restructuring the nuclear weapons complex, but this was cancelled in March 2010. In 2011 Rostechnadzor said that urgent attention was needed “to the 20 open liquid radioactive waste pools, including decommissioning those at FGUP PA Mayak as containing the highest concentration and amount of liquid radioactive waste.”
A dedicated ship to transport used up to 720 tonnes of nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes was built for Atomflot in Italy, and completed in 2011. The Rossita is apparently primarily for military wastes and fuel from decommissioned submarines, and is used on the Northern Sea Route cruising between Gremikha, Andreeva Bay, Saida Bay, Severodvinsk and other territories hosting facilities which dismantle nuclear submarines.
Kyshtym accident and related pollution
There was a major chemical accident at Mayak Chemical Combine (then known as Chelyabinsk-40) near Kyshtym in Russia in 1957. This plant had been built in haste in the late 1940s for military purposes. The failure of the cooling system for a tank storing many tonnes of dissolved nuclear waste resulted in an explosion due to ammonium nitrate having a force estimated at about 75 tonnes of TNT (310 GJ). Most of the 740-800 PBq of radioactive contamination settled out nearby and contributed to the pollution of the Techa River, but a plume containing 80 PBq of radionuclides spread hundreds of kilometres northeast. The affected area was already very polluted – the Techa River had previously received about 100 PBq of deliberately dumped waste, and Lake Karachay had received some 4000 PBq. This ‘Kyshtym accident’ killed perhaps 200 people and the radioactive plume affected thousands more as it deposited particularly Cs-127 and Sr-90. It is rated as a level 6 ‘serious accident’ on the International Nuclear Event Scale, only surpassed by Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents.
Up to 1951 the Mayak plant had dumped its wastes into the Techa River, whose waters ultimately flow into the Ob River and Arctic Ocean. Then they were disposed of into Lake Karachay until at least 1953, when a storage facility for high-level wastes was built – the source of the 1957 accident. Finally, a 1967 duststorm picked up a lot of radioactive material from the dry bed of Lake Karachay and deposited it on to the surrounding province. It appears that some radioactive discharges into the Techa River continued, and that in particular between 2001 and 2004, some 30-40 million cubic metres of radioactive effluent was discharged near the reprocessing facility, which “caused radioactive contamination of the environment with the isotope strontium-90.” There is no radiological quantification.
The outcome of these three events made some 26,000 square kilometres the most radioactively-polluted area on Earth by some estimates, comparable with Chernobyl.
Rostechnadzor oversees a major program of decommissioning old fuel cycle facilities, financed under the Federal target program on Nuclear and Radiation Safety. The government said it planned to spend some $5 billion to 2015 on decommissioning and waste management.
Six civil reactors are being decommissioned: an experimental 50 MWt LWGR type at Obninsk which started up in 1954 (5 MWe) and was the forerunner of RBMKs, two early and small prototype LWGR (AMB-100 & 200) units – Beloyarsk 1&2, the Melekess VK-50 prototype BWR, and two larger prototype VVER-440 units at Novovoronezh, a V-210 and V-365 type. The last five were shut down 1981-90 and await dismantling. The fuel has been removed from these and that from Novovoronezh has been shipped to centralised storage in Zheleznogorsk and will be stored there for about ten years before reprocessing. The Beloyarsk fuel is still on site since reprocessing technology for it is not available.
At Novovoronezh 1&2 a decommissioning project with partial dismantling of equipment was prepared and a licence was expected in 2010. Work will take several years, and buildings are likely to be re-used. In particular that portion of the site houses the district heating pumps and equipment, which provides 75% of the heat for the city, and a spare parts store for Energoatom.
In 2010 Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) in collaboration with Rosatom set up the JSC Pilot Demonstration Center for Decommissioning of Uranium-Graphite Reactors (PDC UGR) at SCC site to implement a decommissioning concept for 13 shut-down uranium-graphite plutonium production reactors. These are at Mayak Chemical Combine at Ozersk (5), near Kyshtym, at Siberian Chemical Combine, Seversk (5, including ADE3, 4 & 5, EI-2), and at Mining & Chemical Combine, Zheleznogorsk (3: AD, ADE1 & ADE2). ADE2 was the last plutonium production reactor finally closed for decommissioning, in April 2010.* The fuel has been removed from the shut-down reactors and nearly all of it has been reprocessed at Mayak and Seversk. The concept provides for building multiple safety barriers and sealing of shut-down reactors rather than their dismantling, at a cost estimated to be RUR 2 billion (US$ 67 million) each. All 13 are expected o be decommissioned by 2025 (EI-2 in 2015). In 2009 SCC won a tender to prepare for decommissioning of the four Bilibino reactors (due to close 2019-21) and those at Beloyarsk.
In January 2014 Rosatom announced that the PDC UGR, having established its credibility and expertise, would cease to be part of SCC and become part of its new End-of-Life (EOL) Management Division, under the Federal Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (FC NRS).
Three nuclear powered icebreakers have been decommissioned: Lenin, Sibir and Arktika, also the support vessel: Lepse which holds some used nuclear fuel from the Arctic fleet. Lenin is being turned into a museum.
The State Corporation (SC) Rosatom is a vertically-integrated holding company which took over Russia's nuclear industry in 2007, from the Federal Atomic Energy Agency (FAEA, also known as Rosatom). This had been formed from the Ministry for Atomic Energy (Minatom) in 2004, which had succeeded a Soviet ministry in 1992. The civil parts of the industry, with a history of over 60 years, are consolidated under JSC AtomEnergoProm (AEP).
During 2008 there was a major reorganisation or "privatisation" of nuclear industry entities involving change from Federal State Unitary Enterprises (FSUE) to Joint Stock Companies (JSC), with most or all of the shares held by AtomEnergoProm. By mid August 2008, 38 of 55 civil nuclear FSUEs had been reformed. Some renaming occurred due to new restrictions on the use of "Russia" or derivatives (eg "Ros") in JSC names.
The State Nuclear Energy Corporation Rosatom (as distinct from the earlier Rosatom agency) is a non-profit company set up in 2007 to hold all nuclear assets, including more than 250 companies and organisations, on behalf of the state. In particular, it will hold all the shares in the civil holding company AtomEnergoProm (AEP). It took over the functions of the Rosatom agency and works with the Ministries of Industry and Energy (MIE) and of Economic Development and Trade (MEDT) but does not report to any particular ministry. Early in 2012 the government announced that its civil divisions might be privatised, at least to 49% share in individual entities.
SC Rosatom divisions are:
- Nuclear weapons complex
- Nuclear & Radiation Safety and wastes
- Nuclear Power - Atomenergoprom, Rosenergoatom
- Research & Training
- Atomflot - Arctic fleet of 7 nuclear icebreakers and one nuclear merchant ship.
But see full list at http://www.rosatom.ru/en/about/enterprises/#5
AtomEnergoProm (Atomic Energy Power Corporation, AEP) is the single vertically-integrated state holding company for Russia's nuclear power sector, separate from the military complex. It was set up at the end of 2007 to include uranium production, engineering, design, reactor construction, power generation, isotope production and research institutes in its several branches, but not used fuel reprocessing or disposal facilities. It incorporates more than 80 enterprises operating in all areas of the nuclear fuel cycle. The April 2007 Presidential decree establishing it specifies nuclear materials, which may be owned exclusively by the state, lists Russian legal entities allowed to possess nuclear materials and facilities, existing joint stock companies to be incorporated into the Atomenergoprom, and lists federal state unitary enterprises to be corporatized first and incorporated into the Atomenergoprom at a later stage. Exclusive state ownership of nuclear materials had been seen as a barrier to competitiveness and other Russian corporate entities will now be allowed to hold civil-grade nuclear materials, under state control.
Entities from Atomenergoprom itself down to various third-level subsidiaries will be joint stock companies eventually. Public investment in the bottom level operations is envisaged – the joint venture between Alstom and Atomenergomash to provide large turbines and generators is cited as an example.
JSC AtomEnergoProm's entities include the following (most are JSCs):
- ARMZ Uranium Holding Co (JSC AtomRedMetZoloto) – uranium production – owns Russian mine assets and foreign JV shares
- Techsnabexport (Tenex) – foreign trade in uranium products and services,
- JSC Enrichment & Conversion Complex,
- TVEL – enrichment and nuclear fuel fabrication,
- Moscow Atomenergoproekt (AEP) – power plant design,
- St Petersburg Atomenergoproekt (SPbAEP) – power plant design, now a branch of VNIPIET, and from July 2013 no longer a legal entity.
- VNIPIET (All-Russia Science Research and Design Institute of Power Engineering Technology) – design of nuclear power projects, radiochemical plants and waste facilities,
- Nizhny-Novgorod Atomenergoproekt (NN AEP or NIAEP) – power plant design, from 2012: holding company for ASE. Sometimes now known as NIAEP-ASE.
- Atomstroyexport (ASE) – construction of nuclear plants abroad, merged with NIAEP in 2012. Sometimes known as NIAEP-ASE.
- Energospetsmontazh – construction and assembly, also repair of nuclear plants,
- Atomenergomash (AEM) – a group of companies building reactors,
- OKBM Afrikantov (formerly just OKBM – Experimental Design Bureau of Machine-building – Mashinostroyeniya) at Nizhny Novgorod- reactor design and construction,
- OKB Gidropress (Experimental Design Bureau pressurised water – Hydropress) at Podolsk near Moscow – PWR reactor design,
- JSC Rosenergoatom (briefly Energoatom) – responsible for construction and operation of nuclear power generation,
- Rusatom Overseas – responsible for implementing non fuel-cycle projects in foreign markets,
- Rusatom Service – coordination of servicing nuclear plants abroad,
- Atomenergoremont – maintenance and upgrading of nuclear power plants,
- Research & Development Institute for Power Engineering (NIKIET) at Moscow – power plant design (originally: submarine power plants)
- Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering (CDBME) of the Russian Shipbuilding Agency – involved in some reactor design.
Atomstroyexport (ASE), established by merger in 1998, emerged from the reorganisation as a closed joint stock company owned by Atomenergoprom (50.2%) and Gazprombank (49.8%, it is 69% owned by Gazprom). Early in 2009 the Atomenergoprom and related equity was increased to 89.3% by additional share issue, leaving Gazprombank with 10.7%. It is responsible for export of nuclear plants to China, Iran, India and Bulgaria. In 2009 German-based Nukem Technologies GmbH, which specialises in decommissioning, waste management and engineering services, became a 100% subsidiary of Atomstroyexport.
Rosatom, through ASE, offers both EPC (Engineering, Procurement, Construction) and BOO (Build, Own, Operate) contracts for overseas nuclear power plant projects, the latter involving at least 25% Rosatom equity. Rosatom offers various kinds of project financing, including attraction of strategic and institutional investors and debt financing. Some project finance is covered by international agreements involving either export credits, Russian government credit or the participation of Russian state banks. It says that lending rates can be optimized for nuclear power plant projects, and up to 85% of the finance may be provided by government credit from Russia.
JSC Rosenergoatom is the only Russian organization primarily acting as a utility operating nuclear power plants. It was established in 1992 and reorganized in 2001 and then in 2008 as an open JSC. From December 2011 JSC Atomenergoprom holds 96% of the shares, and SC Rosatom (which owns Atomenergoprom) holds 4%. Rosenergoatom owns all nuclear power plants, both operating and under construction.
InterRAO UES was formerly a joint venture of Rosenergoatom and RAO UES, the utility which was broken up in mid 2008. It is now 57.3% owned by Rosatom and focused on electricity generation in areas such as Armenia and the Kaliningrad part of Russia, as the country's exporter and importer of electricity. It has 8 GWe of generating plant of its own and plans to increase this to 30 GWe by 2015, with the Baltic nuclear plant at Kaliningrad as an early priority. It heads a group of over 20 companies located in 14 countries, involving 18 GWe of capacity. Inter RAO-WorleyParsons (IRWP, with Inter RAO 51%) was set up in mid 2010 to work on the transfer of power engineering technology into Inter RAO's market and to promote Inter RAO's projects oversees.
In July 2008 the divisions of Atomernergoproekt were converted to joint stock companies, with all shares held by Atomenergoprom. St Petersburg Atomenergoproekt (SPbAEP) worked closely with Atomstroyexport (ASE) on exported plants and is responsible for Leningrad II plant under construction, but in 2013 it became part of VNIPIET.
In February 2013 Atomenergoprom said it planned to merge SPbAEP with VNIPIET to create the country’s largest nuclear power plant technology development company. The new company "will be able to support all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, from a decision to start a nuclear power plant construction project to decommissioning."
Nizhny-Novgorod AEP (NIAEP) is building plants at Rostov (Volgodonsk) and Kalinin, where it linked with ASE to utilize some 1980s VVER equipment not required for Bulgaria's new Belene plant. NIAEP in March 2012 was merged with Atomstroyexport (ASE) to bolster the latter's engineering capability. NIAEP became a holding company for JSC ASE, but NIAEP-ASE was being used as acronym to late 2013. In June 2013 the projects in hand were said to be: Rostov-3 & 4, Baltic 1 & 2, Nizhny Novgorod 1 & 2, Kursk II, all in Russia, and Kudankulam 3 & 4, Tianwan 3 & 4, Akkuyu 1-4, Ostrovets 1 & 2, Bushehr 1, Ninh Thuan 1&2. In mid 2013 Rooppur in Bangladesh was added. It is also building a large (3x400 MWe) gas combined-cycle plant: South Ural/ Yuzhnouralskaya GRES-2 Units 1&2.
NIAEP (post merger) has a design institute in Nizhny-Novgorod, project management offices in Nizhny-Novgorod, Moscow and St Petersburg, and 11 representative offices in Europe and Asia to oversee projects.
Moscow AEP is building Novovoronezh (though evidently NN AEP is also involved there).
Rusatom Service was set up in October 2011 by Rosenergoatom (51%), Atomenergomash (16%), Gidropress (16%) and Atomtekhenergo (16%). It will undertake maintenance and repair as well as modernization of Russian-design nuclear power plants abroad, applying Russian domestic experience. The company is also to work in the area of technical consultancy, training and retraining of plant personnel. The market is estimated at EUR 1.5 billion per year, rising to EUR 2.5 billion by 2020, including western-design reactors by then.
OTsKS – Rosatom Branch Centre for Capital Construction – was set up in August 2012 to manage its capital investment program in Russia and internationally. It oversees regulatory, technical and legal aspects of capital construction projects, as well as estimating costs and developing schedules. It also provides training for customer-contractors and general contractors such as NIAEP-ASE as well as the personnel of construction companies. Rosatom subsidiary companies have to complete their transition to new rules on planning capital construction projects developed by OTsKS, by the end of 2013. Its main customer is Rosenergoatom which is building about ten units in Russia, with 12 more planned by 2025.
AKME-engineering was established in 2009 to implement the SVBR-100 project at Dimitrovgrad, including design, construction and commercial operation. It is a JV of Rosatom and JSC Irkutskenergo, and is licensed for construction and operation of nuclear plants by Rostechnadzor.
The Federal Centre of Nuclear and Radiation Safety (FC NRS) is a federal-state unitary enterprise set up in 2007 by Rosatom as part of its End-of-Life (EOL) Management Division. The Pilot Demonstration Center for Decommissioning of Uranium-Graphite Reactors (PDC UGR) is to become part of it, rather than staying with SCC.
The National Operator for Radioactive Waste Management (NO RAO) is a federal-state unitary enterprise set up in 2012 responsible for waste management and disposal. It is the National Operator for handling all nuclear waste materials, with functions and tariffs set by government.
FSUE RosRAO provides commercial back-end radwaste and decommissioning services for intermediate- and low-level wastes as well as handling non-nuclear radwaste. It commenced operation in 2009 under a temporary arrangement pending finalisation of regulations under the new legislation. It incorporates Radon, which was the organisation responsible for medical and industrial radioactive wastes, and now has branches in each of seven federal districts. RosRAO’s Far East Centre (DalRAO) operates long-term storage for over 70 submarine reactor compartments, pending their recycling. Its northern centre is SevRAO, in the Murmansk region, is engaged in remediation of the sites of Navy Northern Fleet bases, and dismantling of retired nuclear-powered naval ships and submarines. RosRAO is envisaged as an international operator. RosRAO will become part of Rosatom’s Life Cycle Back-End Division (LC BED) in 2013.
In 2013 Rosatom’s Life Cycle Back-End Division (LC BED) was set up to incorporate entities hitherto the responsibility of FC NRS: the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC), RosRAO, SPA V.G.Khlopin Radium Institute and Radon. FC NRS will continue involvement with the new division.
FSUE Atomflot is a Rosatom division operating the nuclear powered icebreakers and merchant ship in Arctic waters.
Situation and Crisis Centre of Rosatom was established in 1998 acts as the Operator of the Nuclear Industry System for Prevention and Management of Emergencies. It keeps track of nuclear enterprises and transport of nuclear materials.
SNIIP Systematom is an engineering company for nuclear and radiation safety systems. It will supply the equipment for automated radiation monitoring systems (ARMS) at the Kalinin 1 nuclear unit in Russia and Tianwan 4 in China.
UES was the electricity monopoly and also operated fossil fuel power stations, but it has now been broken up.
Supply chain entities
Atomenergomash (AEM) was set up in 2006 to control the supply chain for major reactor components. After an equity issue in 2009 it was 63.6% owned by AEP, 14.7% by TVEL and 7.6% by Tenex, and 7% by AEM-finance. In 2009 AEM had sales of RUR 16 billion. AEM companies claim to have provided equipment in 13% of nuclear plants worldwide.
The former main nuclear fabrication company, Atommash, was established in 1973 at Volgodonsk and went bankrupt in 1995. It was then profoundly restructured and resurrected as EMK-Atommash before becoming part of JSC Energomash, a major diversified engineering company apparently independent of Rosatom/AEP. Atommash has now largely moved away from nuclear equipment, though Atomenergomash (part of AEP) is reported to be keen to resuscitate it as an alternative heavy equipment supplier to OMZ. In 2009 Atomenergomash was doing due diligence on the Energomash group, apparently with a view to taking a half share in it, "to create competition in the segment of monopoly suppliers of long-lead nuclear equipment.”
Objedinennye Mashinostroitelnye Zavody (OMZ – Uralmash-Izhora Group) itself is the largest heavy industry company in Russia, and has a wide shareholding. Izhorskiye Zavody, the country's main reactor component supplier, became part of the company in 1999, and Skoda Steel and Skoda JS in Czech Republic joined in 2003. OMZ is expected to produce the forgings for all new domestic AES-2006 model VVER-1200 nuclear reactors (four per year from 2016), plus exports. At present Izhora can produce the heavy forgings required for Russia's VVER-1000 reactors at the rate of two per year, and it is manufacturing components for the first two Leningrad II VVER-1200 units.
The Power Machines Company (JSC Silovye Mashiny Concern, or Silmash) was established in 2000 and brought together a number of older enterprises including Leningradsky Metallichesky Zavod (LMZ), Elektrosila, Turbine Blades Factory, etc. Siemens holds 26% of the stock. Silmash makes steam turbines up to 1200 MWe, including the 1000 MWe turbines for Atomstroyexport projects in China, India and Iran, and has supplied equipment to 57 countries worldwide. It is making 1200 MWe turbine generators for the Leningrad and Novovoronezh II nuclear plants. A significant amount of Power Machines' business is in Asia.
The Russian EnergyMachineBuilding Company (REMCO) was established as a closed joint stock company in Russia in 2008, amalgamating some smaller firms, with half the shares owned by Atomenergomash. It is one of the largest manufacturers of complex heat-exchange equipment for nuclear and thermal power plants, oil and gas industry. Its subsidiaries include JSC Machine-Building Plant ZiO-Podolsk and JSC Engineering Company ZIOMAR.
JSC Machine Building Plant ZiO-Podolsk is one of the largest manufacturers designing and producing equipment for nuclear power and other plants. It has made equipment, including steam generators and heat exchangers, for all nuclear plants in the former USSR. It is increasing capacity to four nuclear equipment sets per year. It appears to be 51% owned by REMCO. It is making the reactor pressure vessel and other main equipment for the BN-800 fast reactor at Beloyarsk as well as steam generators for Novovoronezh, Kalinin 4, Leningrad and Belene.
In April 2007 a joint venture company to manufacture the turbine and generator portions of new nuclear power plants was announced by French engineering group Alstom and JSC Atomenergomash. The 49:51 Alstom-Atomenergomash LLC (AAEM) joint venture, in which both parties would invest EUR 200 million, was established at Podolsk, near Moscow. It includes the technology transfer of Alstom's state of the art Arabelle steam turbine and generator (available up to 1800 MWe) tailored to Russian VVER technology. In 2010 AAEM signed an agreement with Inter RAO-Worley Parsons (IRWP) to establish an engineering consortium to design turbine islands for Russia's VVER reactor-based nuclear power plants. At the same time Alstom signed strategic agreements with major Russian energy companies to jointly provide power generation products and services for Russia's power industry in hydro, nuclear and thermal power generation and electricity transmission. Another agreement, between Alstom Power and Rosatom, details plans to set up a local facility to manufacture Alstom's Arabelle steam turbines for nuclear plants. In 2011 Petrozavodskmash joined the group, and its site is more suitable for shipping large components, so in 2011 the company decided to build its factory for Arabelle manufacture at Petrozavodsk, in Karelia, by 2015 instead of continuing with ZiO-Podolsk near Moscow. First production was expected in 2013 with output reaching three 1200 MWe turbine and generator sets per year in 2016. The Baltic plant will be the first customer, in a RUB 35 billion order, with Russian content about 50%. This will increase to over 70% for subsequent projects.
In September 2007 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) signed an agreement with Russia's Ural Turbine Works (UTZ) to manufacture, supply and service gas and steam turbines in the Russian market. Under the agreement, MHI, Japan's biggest machinery maker, will license its manufacturing technologies for large gas turbines and steam turbines to UTZ – part of the Renova Group. The agreement also calls for a joint venture to be established in Russia to provide after-sales service.
Russia has developed several generations of centrifuges for uranium enrichment. Ninth-generation machines are now being deployed, 10th generation ones re being developed, and 11th generation are being designed. The 9th generation units are said to be 1.5 times as efficient as 8th. Overall since 1960, the machine weight, size and power characteristics have remained practically unchanged, but their efficiency was raised more than six-fold, design service life was increased from 3 to 30 years, and the SWU cost was reduced “several times”. Centrifuges for China under a US$ 1 billion contract are manufactured at both Tocmash and Kovrov Mechanical plant, both of which will become part of the Fuel Company being established by TVEL. Russia intends to export its centrifuges to the USA and SE Asia.
For more up to date information on heavy engineering, see paper on Heavy Manufacturing of Power Plants.
Early in 2006 Rosenergoatom set up a subsidiary to supply floating nuclear power plants (BNPPs) ranging in size from 70 to 600 MWe. The plants are designed by OKBM in collaboration with others. The pilot plant, now under construction, is 70 MWe plus heat output and incorporates two KLT-40S reactors based on those in icebreakers.
Regulation and safety
Two main laws govern the use of nuclear power: the Federal Law on the Use of Atomic Energy (November 1995 and Federal Law on Radiation Safety of Populations (January 1996). These are supported by federal laws including those on environmental protection (2002) and the Federal Law on Radioactive Waste Management (2011).
Rostechnadzor (rostekhnadzor.com and www.gosnadzor.ru) is the regulator, set up (as GAN) in 1992, reporting direct to the President. Because of the links with military programs, a culture of secrecy pervaded the old Soviet nuclear power industry. After the 1986 Chernobyl accident, changes were made and a nuclear safety committee established. The State Committee for Nuclear and Radiation Safety – Gosatomnadzor (GAN) succeeded this in 1992, being responsible for licensing, regulation and operational safety of all facilities, for safety in transport of nuclear materials, and for nuclear materials accounting. Its inspections can result in legal charges against operators. However, on some occasions when it suspended operating licences in the 1990s, Minatom successfully overrode this. In 2004 GAN was incorporated into the Federal Ecological, Technological & Atomic Supervisory Service, Rostechnadzor, which has a very wide environmental and safety mandate. It has executive authority for development and implementation of public policy and legal regulation in the environmental field, as well as in the field of technological and nuclear supervision. It controls and supervises natural resources development, industrial safety, nuclear safety (except for weapons), safety of electrical networks, hydraulic structures and industrial explosives. It licences nuclear energy facilities, and supervises nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear and radiologically hazardous installations, including supervision of nuclear materials accounting, control and physical protection. A 2011 overview is on IAEA website.
Safety has evidently been improving at Russian nuclear power plants. In 1993 there were 29 incidents rating level 1 and higher on the INES scale, in 1994 there were nine, and since then to 2003, no more than four. Also, up until 2001 many employees received annual radiation doses of over 20 mSv, but since 2002 very few have done so.
In 2008 Rostechnadzor was transferred to the Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment, but this was reversed in mid 2010 and it was brought back under direct control of the government and focused on civil nuclear energy. Following other changes in federal legislation, an IAEA Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission in 2013 said that Rostechnadzor had made "significant progress" in its development since 2009 and had “become an effective independent regulator with a professional staff”. Rostechnadzor undertook to make the final IRRS report early in 2014 public.
The 1996 Federal Law on Radiation Safety of Populations is administered by the Federal Ministry of Health.
Exports: fuel cycle
Soviet exports of enrichment services began in 1973, and Russia has strongly continued this, along with exports of radioisotopes. After 1990, uranium exports began, through Techsnabexport (Tenex).
Rosatom in its 2012 annual report said that its portfolio of foreign orders was worth a total $66.5 billion, up 30.7% compared with the previous year. It aims to increase these orders to $72 billion in 2013. Its long-term strategy, approved by its board in late 2011, calls for foreign operations to account for half of its business by 2030. It aims to hold at least one-third of the global enrichment services market by then, as well as 5% of the market for pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel. The corporation said that it is "actively strengthening its position abroad for the construction of nuclear power plants." Rosatom had a portfolio of export orders for 19 nuclear power reactors in 2012, but aims to have orders for the construction of some 30 power reactors outside of Russia by 2030.
In 2009 Tenex signed long-term enrichment services contacts with three US utilities – AmerenUE, Luminant and Pacific Gas & Electric – and one in Japan – Chubu. The contracts cover supply from 2014 to 2020. Then it contracted to supply enriched uranium product over the same period with Exelon, the largest US nuclear utility. By the end of 2010, the value of contracts with US companies rose to about $4 billion, beyond the diluted ex-military uranium already being supplied to 2013 from Russian weapons stockpiles. In 2012, Tenex supplied about 45% of world demand for enrichment services and 17% of that for fabricated fuel. It exported fuel for 34 reactors as well as supplying 33 Russian ones.
This US-Russian "Megatonnes to Megawatts" program supplies about 15% of world reactor requirements for enriched uranum and is part of a US$ 12 billion deal in 1994 between US and Russian governments, with a non-proliferation as well as commercial rationale. USEC and Tenex are the executive agents for the program. However, Rosatom confirmed in mid 2006 that no follow-on program of selling Russian high-enriched uranium from military stockpiles was anticipated once this program concludes in 2013. The 20-year program is equivalent to about 140,000 to 150,000 tonnes of natural uranium, and has supplied about half of US needs. By September 2010 it was 80% complete.
TVEL in 2010 won a tender to construct a fuel manufacturing plant in Ukraine, against competition from US company Westinghouse. Russia's long-term contract to supply fuel to the Ukrainian market will run until the end of the useful life of existing Ukrainian reactors, perhaps up to 35 years.
Rosatom has claimed to be able to undercut world prices for nuclear fuel and services by some 30%.
It was also pushing ahead with plans to store and probably reprocess foreign spent fuel, and earlier the Russian parliament overwhelmingly supported a change in legislation to allow this. The proposal involved some 10% of the world's spent fuel over ten years, or perhaps up to 20,000 tonnes of spent fuel, to raise US$ 20 billion, two thirds of which would be invested in expanding civil nuclear power. In July 2001 President Putin signed into effect three laws including one to allow this import of spent nuclear fuel (essentially an export of services, since Russia would be paid for it).
The President also set up a special commission to approve and oversee any spent fuel accepted, with five members each from the Duma, the Council, the government and presidential nominees, chaired by Dr Zhores Alferov, a parliamentarian, Vice-President of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Nobel Prize physicist. This scheme was progressed in 2005 when the Duma ratified the Vienna Convention on civil liability for nuclear damage. However in July 2006 Rosatom announced it would not proceed with taking any foreign-origin used fuel, and the whole scheme lapsed.
Exports: general, plants and projects
Russia is engaged with international markets in nuclear energy, well beyond its traditional eastern European client states. An important step up in this activity was in August 2011 when Rosatom established Rusatom Overseas company, with authorized capital of RUR 1 billion. It is responsible for implementing non fuel-cycle projects in foreign markets, though apparently it also promotes products, services and technologies of the Russian nuclear industry generally to the world markets. According to Rosatom, "Rusatom Overseas acts as an integrator of Rosatom's complex solutions in nuclear energy, manages the promotion of the integrated offer and the development of Russian nuclear business abroad, as well as working to create a worldwide network of Rosatom marketing offices." It also "acts as a developer of Rosatom's foreign projects, which are implemented with the build-own-operate (BOO) structure." One of the first projects that Rosatom is implementing using the BOO structure is the Akkuyu plant in Turkey. Rusatom plans to open some 20 offices around the world by 2015, as a market research front and shop window for all Rosatom products and services.
Atomstroyexport (ASE, now NIAEP-ASE) has had three reactor construction projects abroad, all involving VVER-1000 units. It is embarking upon and seeking more, as detailed in Nuclear Power in Russia companion paper.
Since 2006 Rosatom has actively pursued nuclear cooperation deals in South Africa, Namibia, Chile and Morocco as well as with Egypt, Algeria, Vietnam, Bangladesh and Kuwait. In 2012 an agreement with Japan was concluded.
Tenex has also entered agreements (now taken over by ARMZ) to mine and explore for uranium in South Africa (with local companies) and Canada (with Cameco).
In September 2008 ARMZ signed a MOU with a South Korean consortium headed by Kepco on strategic cooperation in developing uranium projects. This includes joint exploration, mining and sales of natural uranium in the Russian Federation and possibly beyond.
Russia is engaged with international markets in nuclear energy, well beyond its traditional eastern European client states. In June 2011 Rosatom announced that it was establishing Rusatom Overseas company, a new structure to be responsible for implementing non fuel-cycle projects in foreign markets. It could act as principal contractor and also owner of foreign nuclear capacity under build-own-operate (BOO) arrangements. It is vigorously pursing markets in developing countries and is establishing eight offices abroad.
President Putin's Global Nuclear Infrastructure Initiative was announced early in 2006. This is in line with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 2005 proposal for Multilateral Approaches to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (MNA) and with the US Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). The head of Rosatom said that he envisages Russia hosting four types of international nuclear fuel cycle service centres (INFCCs) as joint ventures financed by other countries. These would be secure and maybe under IAEA control. The first is an International Uranium Enrichment Centre (IUEC) – one of four or five proposed worldwide (see separate section). The second would be for reprocessing and storage of used nuclear fuel. The third would deal with training and certification of personnel, especially for emerging nuclear states. In this context there is a need for harmonized international standards, uniform safeguards and joint international centers. The fourth would be for R&D and to integrate new scientific achievements.
In March 2008 AtomEnergoProm signed a general framework agreement with Japan's Toshiba Corporation to explore collaboration in the civil nuclear power business. The Toshiba partnership is expected to include cooperation in areas including design and engineering for new nuclear power plants, manufacturing and maintenance of large equipment, and "front-end civilian nuclear fuel cycle business". In particular the construction of an advanced Russian centrifuge enrichment plant in Japan is envisaged, also possibly one in the USA. The companies say that the "complementary relations" could lead to the establishment of a strategic partnership. Toshiba owns 77% of US reactor builder Westinghouse and is also involved with other reactor technology.
Regarding reactor design, Rosatom has said it is keen to be involved in international projects for Generation IV reactor development and is keen to have international participation in fast neutron reactor development, as well as joint proposals for MOX fuel fabrication.
In April 2007 Red Star, a government-owned design bureau, and US company Thorium Power (now Lightbridge Corporation) agreed to collaborate on testing Lightbridge's seed and blanket fuel assemblies at the Kurchatov Institute with a view to using thorium-based fuel in VVER-1000 reactors. (see Thorium paper for details )
In 2006 the former working relationship with Kazakhstan in nuclear fuel supplies was rebuilt. Kazatomprom has agreed to a major long-term program of strategic cooperation with Russia in uranium and nuclear fuel supply, as well as development of small reactors, effectively reuniting the two countries' interests in future exports of nuclear fuel to China, Japan, Korea, the USA and Western Europe.
In June 2010 Rosatom signed a major framework agreement with the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) covering "nuclear energy development strategy, nuclear fuel cycle, development of next-generation reactors, future gas coolant reactor systems, radiation safety and nuclear material safety, prevention and emergency measures." Much of the collaboration will be focused on reprocessing and wastes, also sodium-cooled fast reactors. Subsequently EdF and Rosatom signed a further cooperation agreement covering R&D, nuclear fuel, and nuclear power plants - both existing and under construction.
In March 2007 Russia signed a cooperation declaration with the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), so that Russia became a regular observer in all NEA standing technical committees, bringing it much more into the mainstream of world nuclear industry development. Russia had been participating for some years in the NEA's work on reactor safety and nuclear regulation and is hosting an NEA project on reactor vessel melt-through. This agreement was expected to assist Russia's integration into the OECD, and in October 2011 Russia made an official request to join the NEA. It was accepted as the 31st member of the OECD NEA in May 2012, effective from January 2013. Russia will be represented by its Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rosatom, and nuclear regulator Rostechnadzor.
Over two decades to about 2010 a Russian-US coordinating committee* was discussing building a GT-MHR prototype at Seversk, primarily for weapons plutonium disposition. Today OKBM is responsible to collaboration with China on HTR development, though NIIAR and Kurchatov Institute are also involved.
Research & Development
Many research reactors were constructed in the 1950s and 60s. In 1998 more than 60 non-military research and test reactors were operational in Russia, plus three in former Soviet republics and eight Russian ones elsewhere. Most of these use ceramic fuel enriched to 36% or 90% U-235.
Russia has had substantial R&D on nuclear power for six decades. The premier establishment for this is the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute in Moscow, set up 1943 as the Laboratory No. 2 of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. In 2010 it joined the Skolkovo project, an R&D centre set up to rival Silicon Valley in the USA. It has run twelve research reactors there, six of which are now shut down. The 24 kW F-1 research reactor was started up in December 1946 and has passed its 60th anniversary in operation. The largest reactor is IR-8, of 8 MWt, used for isotope production.
The Kurchatov Institute has designed nuclear reactors for marine and space applications, and continues research on HTRs. Since 1995 it has been involved internationally with accounting, control and physical protection of nuclear materials. US Lightbridge Corporation's seed and blanket fuel assemblies are being tested there with a view to using thorium-based fuel in VVER-1000 reactors. Since 1955 the Institute has hosted the main experimental work on plasma physics and nuclear fusion, and the first tokamak systems were developed there. Since 1990, much of its funding comes from international cooperation and commercial projects.
The Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) is near St Petersburg but associated with the Kurchatov Institute. It was formerly the B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PIYaF). In 1959 the WWR-M research reactor was put into operation, and in 1970 a 1 GeV proton synchrocyclotron started up, these continue in operation. A new 100 MWt high-flux reactor with 25 associated research facilities, PIK, is under construction there and achieved criticality in 2012. It uses 27 kg of 90% enriched uranium fuel. Once commissioned around 2015 PIK will be the most powerful high-flux research beam reactor in Russia, and the national centre for neutron research.
Russia's State Scientific Centre - Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (RIAR, or NIIAR), said to be the biggest nuclear research centre in Russia, is in Dimitrovgrad (Melekess), in Ulyanovsk county 1300 km SE of Moscow. It was founded in 1956 to host both research and experimental reactors, and it researches fuel cycle, radiochemicals and radioactive waste management, as well as producing radionuclides for medicine and industry. It hosts the main R&D on electrometallurgical pyroprocessing, especially for fast reactors, and associated vibropacked fuel technology for these.
Its first reactor - SM - has been running since 1961 and now produces radioisotopes. The MIR reactor (1967) has been important in developing fuel rod designs for power and naval reactors. Russia's only boiling water reactor, VK-50, operated there.
As well as three other research reactors, the BOR-60* fast reactor is operated here by RIAR. It started up in 1969 and is to be replaced about 2019 with a 100-150 MWt sodium-cooled fast reactor – MBIR. This will be a multi-loop research reactor capable of testing lead, lead-bismuth and gas coolants as well as sodium, and running on MOX fuel. RIAR intends to set up an on-site closed fuel cycle for it, using pyrochemical reprocessing it has developed at pilot scale. The program is to be open to foreign collaboration, in connection with the IAEA INPRO program.
The first 100 MWe Lead-Bismuth Fast Reactor (SVBR) from Gidropress is to be built at RIAR and operated from 2017. It is designed to use a wide variety of fuels, though the demonstration unit will initially use uranium enriched to 16.3%. With U-Pu MOX fuel it would operate in closed cycle. The SVBR-100 could be the first reactor cooled by heavy metal to be utilized to generate electricity. It is described by Gidropress as a multi-function reactor, for power, heat or desalination.
In 2010 TerraPower from USA proposed that RIAR should carry out in-pile tests and post-irradiation examinations of structural materials and fuel specimens planned for its travelling-wave reactor. A final agreement was expected in November, but apparently did not eventuate.
RIAR has the largest materials study laboratory in Eurasia, used particularly for irradiated fuel. The complex's major future role will be in fuel reprocessing. The initial fuel for MBIR is likely to be from reprocessed BOR-60 fuel, as is that for SVBR-100.
Fuel research at RIAR includes integration of minor actinides into FNR closed fuel cycle, nitride fuel (both mononitride and U-Pu nitride), metallic fuel (U-Pu-Zr, U-Al, U-Be) and RBMK spent fuel conditioning. It also is working on molten salt fuel – reprocessing and minor actinide behaviour.
RAIR has established a joint venture with JSC Izotop - Izotop-NIIAR, to produce Mo-99 at Dimitrovgrad from 2010, using newly-installed German equipment. This aimed to capture 20% of the world market for Mo-99 by 2012, and 40% subsequently. In September 2010 JSC Isotop signed a framework agreement with Canada-based MDS Nordion to explore commercial opportunities outside Russia on the basis of this JV, initially over ten years.
In 1954 the world's first nuclear powered electricity generator began operation in the then closed city of Obninsk at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (FEI or IPPE). The AM-1* reactor is water-cooled and graphite-moderated, with a design capacity of 30 MWt or 5 MWe. It was similar in principle to the plutonium production reactors in the closed military cities and served as a prototype for other graphite channel reactor designs including the Chernobyl-type RBMK** reactors. AM-1 produced electricity until 1959 and was used until 2000 as a research facility and for the production of isotopes. FEI is also bidding to host the MBIR project.
In the 1950s the FEI at Obninsk was also developing fast breeder reactors (FBRs), and in 1955 the BR-1* fast neutron reactor began operating. It produced no power but led directly to the BR-5 which started up in 1959 with a capacity of 5 MWt which was used to do the basic research necessary for designing sodium-cooled FBRs. It was upgraded and modernised in 1973 and then underwent major reconstruction in 1983 to become the BR-10 with a capacity of 8 MWt which is now used to investigate fuel endurance, to study materials and to produce radioisotopes.
PA Mayak at Ozersk is the main production centre for radioisotopes.
At Zarechny, near Beloyarsk, is the Institute for Reactor Materials (IRM).
The All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute for Nuclear Power Plant Operation ( VNIIAES ) in Moscow was founded in 1979 to provide scientific and technical support for operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) aimed at improving their safety, reliability and efficiency as well as scientific coordination of the setup of mass-constructed nuclear power facilities
At the Mining & Chemical Combine (MCC), Zheleznogorsk the ADE2 reactor was the third nuclear reactor of its kind built in Russia and came on line in 1964, primarily as a plutonium production unit. However, from 1995 heat and electricity production became its main purposes. The ADE-2 operating experience contributed to technological measures to justify and extend service lives of RBMK reactors at nuclear power plants, with considerable economic benefit and safety improvement. This work was given a governmental science and technology award in 2009. ADE2 was closed for final decommissioning in April 2010 after "46 years of nearly faultless operation".
MCC Zheleznogorsk also produces granulated MOX for vibropacked FNR fuel, using both military and civil plutonium.
In 2009 the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute (MEPhI) was renamed the National Research Nuclear University and reformed to incorporate a number of other educational establishments. While partly funded by Rosatom, it is the responsibility of the Federal Education Agency (Rosobrazovaniye).
In 2010 the government is to allocate RUR 500 million (about US$ 170 million) of federal funds to design a space nuclear propulsion and generation installation in the megawatt power range. In particular, SC Rosatom is to get RUR 430 million and Roskosmos (Russian Federal Space Agency) RUR 70 million to develop it. The work will be undertaken by NIKIET (Research & Development Institute for Power Engineering) in Moscow, based on previous developments including those of nuclear rocket engines. A conceptual design is expected in 2011, with the basic design documentation and engineering design to follow in 2012. Tests are planned for 2018.
Since 2010 NIKIET is also involved with Luch Scientific Production Association (SPA Luch) and a Belarus organization, the Joint Institute for Power Engineering and Nuclear Research (Sosny), to design a small transportable nuclear reactor. The project will draw on Sosny’s experience in designing the Pamir-630D truck-mounted small nuclear reactor, two of which were built in Belarus from 1976 during the Soviet era. This was a 300-600 kWe HTR reactor using 45% enriched fuel and driving a gas turbine with nitrogen tetraoxide (N2O4) through the Brayton cycle. After some operational experience the Pamir project was scrapped in 1986. The new design will be a similar HTR concept but about 2 MWe.
In mid-2009 the Russian government said that it would provide more than RUR 120 billion (about US$3.89 billion) over 2010 to 2012 for a new program devoted to R&D on the next generation of nuclear power plants. It identified three priorities for the nuclear industry: improving the performance of light water reactors over the next two or three years, developing a closed fuel cycle based on deployment of fast reactors in the medium term, and developing nuclear fusion over the long term.
An April 2008 survey carried out by the Levada Centre found that 72% of Russians were in favour of at least preserving the country's nuclear power capacity and 41% thought that nuclear was the only alternative to oil and gas as they deplete. Over half said that they were indignant about Soviet attempts to cover up news of the Chernobyl accident in 1986.
In April 2010 the Levada Centre polled 1600 adults and found that 37% supported current levels of nuclear power, 37% favoured its active development (making 74% positive), while 10% would like a phase-out and 4.3% would prefer to abandon it completely. 42.6% saw no alternative to nuclear power for replacing depleting oil and gas.
Immediately after the Fukushima accident in 2011 Levada had only 22% for active development, 30% maintaining current level (ie 52% positive), 27% wanting a phase-out and 12% wanting to abandon it.
In February 2012 a Levada Centre poll showed that 29% of respondents favoured active development of nuclear power, while 37% support retaining it at the current level, so 66% positive. Only 15% of suggested phasing it out, and 7% preferred abandoning nuclear.
The Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM) took a poll in April 2012 on the anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. It found that 27% of Russians support nuclear power development – up from 16% in 2011, 38 % agree with the present level, and 26% want to reduce it. Nuclear development is supported by young (32%), highly-educated Russians (31%), residents of cities with a population of one million and more, large cities and towns (30-33%). Regarding safety, 35% consider plants of be sufficiently safe, and 57% don’t.
Russia is a nuclear weapons state, and a depository state of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) under which a safeguards agreement has been in force since 1985. The Additional Protocol was ratified in 2007. However, Russia takes the view that voluntary application of IAEA safeguards are not meaningful for a nuclear weapons state and so they are not generally applied. One exception is the BN-600 Beloyarsk-3 reactor which is safeguarded so as to give experience of such units to IAEA inspectors.
However, this policy is modified in respect to some uranium imports. All facilities where imported uranium under certain bilateral treaties goes must be on the list of those eligible and open to international inspection, and this overrides the voluntary aspect of voluntary offer agreements. It includes conversion plants, enrichment, fuel fabrication and nuclear power plants. Also the IUEC at Angarsk will be open to inspection.
Russia undertook nuclear weapons tests from 1949 to 1990.
Russia's last plutonium production reactor which started up in 1964 was finally closed down in April 2010 - delayed because it also provided district heating, and replacement plant for this was ready until then. The reactor may be held in reserve for heating, not dismantled. The other two such production reactors were closed in 2008. All three closures are in accordance with a 2003 US-Russia agreement.
Peaceful Nuclear Explosions
The Soviet Union also used 116 nuclear explosions (81 in Russia) for geological research, creating underground gas storage, boosting oil and gas production and excavating reservoirs and canals. Most were in the 3-10 kiloton range and all occurred 1965-88.
Background: Soviet nuclear culture
In the 1950s and 1960s Russia seemed to be taking impressive steps to contest world leadership in civil development of nuclear energy. It had developed two major reactor designs, one from military plutonium production technology (the light water cooled graphite moderated reactor – RBMK), and one from naval propulsion units, very much as in USA (the VVER series - pressurised, water cooled and moderated). An ambitious plant, Atommash, to mass produce the latter design was taking shape near Volgodonsk, construction of numerous nuclear plants was in hand and the country had many skilled nuclear engineers.
But a technological arrogance developed, in the context of an impatient Soviet establishment. Then Atommash sunk into the Volga sediments, Chernobyl tragically vindicated western reactor design criteria, and the political structure which was not up to the task of safely utilising such technology fell apart. Atommash had been set up to produce eight sets of nuclear plant equipment each year (reactor pressure vessels, steam generators, refueling machines, pressurizers, service machinery – a total of 250 items). In 1981 it manufactured the first VVER-1000 pressure vessel, which was shipped to South Ukraine NPP. Later, its products were supplied to Balakovo, Smolensk (RBMK), and Kalinin in Russia, and Zaporozhe, Rovno and Khmelnitsky plants in Ukraine. By 1986 Atommash had produced 14 pressure vessels (of which five have remained at the factory), instead of the eight per year intended. Then Chernobyl put the whole nuclear industry into a long standby. Russia was disgraced technologically, and this was exacerbated by a series of incidents in its nuclear-propelled navy contrasting with a near-impeccable safety record in the US Navy.
An early indication of the technological carelessness was substantial pollution followed by a major accident at Mayak Chemical Combine (then known as Chelyabinsk-40) near Kyshtym in 1957. The failure of the cooling system for a tank storing many tonnes of dissolved nuclear waste resulted in a non-nuclear explosion having a force estimated at about 75 tonnes of TNT (310 GJ). This killed 200 people and released some 740 PBq of radioactivity, affecting thousands more. Up to 1951 the Mayak plant had dumped its wastes into the Techa River, whose waters ultimately flow into the Ob River and Arctic Ocean. Then they were disposed of into Lake Karachay until at least 1953, when a storage facility for high-level wastes was built – the source of the 1957 accident. Finally, a 1967 duststorm picked up a lot of radioactive material from the dry bed of Lake Karachay and deposited it on to the surrounding province. The outcome of these three events made some 26,000 square kilometres the most radioactively-polluted area on Earth by some estimates, comparable with Chernobyl.
After Chernobyl there was a significant change of culture in the Russian civil nuclear establishment, at least at the plant level, and this change was even more evident in the countries of eastern Europe who saw the opportunity for technological emancipation from Russia. By the early 1990s a number of western assistance programs were in place which addressed safety issues and helped to alter fundamentally the way things were done in the eastern bloc, including Russia itself. Design and operating deficiencies were tackled, and a safety culture started to emerge. At the same time some R&D programs were suspended.
Both the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Association of Nuclear Operators contributed strongly to huge gains in safety and reliability of Soviet-era nuclear plants – WANO having come into existence as a result of Chernobyl. In the first two years of WANO's existence, 1989-91, operating staff from every nuclear plant in the former Soviet Union visited plants in the west on technical exchange, and western personnel visited every FSU plant. A great deal of ongoing plant-to-plant cooperation, and subsequently a voluntary peer review program, grew out of these exchanges.
Prof V.Ivanov, WNA Symposium 2001, Prof A.Gagarinski and Mr A.Malyshev, WNA Symposium 2002.
Josephson, Paul R, 1999, Red Atom - Russia's nuclear power program from Stalin to today.
Minatom 2000, Strategy of Nuclear Power Development in Russia,
O. Saraev, paper at WNA mid-term meeting in Moscow, May 2003.
Rosenergoatom Bulletin 2002, esp. M.Rogov paper.
Perera, Judith 2003, Nuclear Power in the Former USSR, McCloskey, UK.
Kamenskikh, I, 2005, paper at WNA Symposium.
Kirienko, S. 2006, paper at World Nuclear Fuel Cycle conference, April and WNA Symposium, Sept.
Shchedrovitsky, P. 2007, paper at WNA Symposium, Sept.
Panov et al 2006, Floating Power Sources Based on Nuclear reactor Plants
OECD NEA & IAEA, 2012, Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand – 'Red Book'
Rybachenov, V. 2012, Disposition of Excess Weapons-grade Plutonium – problems and prospects, Centre for Arms Control, Energy & Environmental Studies.