Working Group Reports

Industry expert publications

International Nuclear I&C and Electrical System Standards Tables with URLs (January 2024)

This document brings together the nuclear power plant instrumentation & control and electrical system standards used by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) communities. Both sets of standards are used in different parts of the world. This document is intended as a starting point for identifying similarities and conflicts between the two sets of standards to facilitate harmonization.

Used Fuel is Not an Obstacle to Nuclear Power

Used nuclear fuel management considerations should be included as part of the assessment process for establishing new nuclear power programmes or expanding existing ones.

A Framework for International Regulatory Efficiency to Accelerate Nuclear Deployment (September 2023)

The potential to accelerate standardized reactor deployment through increased cooperation between national regulatory authorities and developing frameworks that involve all stakeholders.

Advanced Manufacturing of Nuclear Components

Advanced manufacturing techniques are of great interest to the nuclear industry as they enable the realization of complex designs, whilst improving the quality and safety of components and reducing the time and cost involved in their manufacture.

Hardware Description Language (HDL) Programmed Device (HPD) Technology in Nuclear Power Plants

This report outlines the current situation in relation to the use and regulatory review of hardware description language programmed devices.

Different Interpretations of Regulatory Requirements

This report focuses on the specific challenges to new nuclear plant projects posed by the interpretations of fundamental safety objectives and requirements by different national regulators.

Non-Linear Analysis Design Rules Part 3: Recommendations for Industrial Practices

This report proposes recommendations for industrial practices in non-linear analysis of safety grade reactor components.

Design Maturity and Regulatory Expectations for Small Modular Reactors (June 2021)

This report describes the relationship between licensing processes in a variety of countries and design phases of a reactor.

Harmonization of Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing: Lessons Learned from Transport (December 2020)

This report presents the example of transport and extracts potential lessons to be drawn for international harmonization of reactor design and approaches to licensing. In so doing, the authors acknowledge that while there is significant complexity in designing a package to safely ship nuclear material in the public domain, the design of nuclear reactors is clearly of a higher order of complexity.

Non-Linear Analysis Design Rules Part 2b: Assessment of Non-Linear Benchmark Results (September 2020)

In this report, the results of the two benchmarks for non-linear analysis of nozzles under pressure, thermal and piping loads are presented, compared, and assessed to highlight any differences which may emerge due to assumptions and interpretations made by international participants, even when the same design is being analyzed using similar software. 

I&C Modernization: Current Status and Difficulties (September 2020)

This paper builds upon the ideas and experiences shared at an I&C modernization workshop in Erlangen, Germany in October 2019 organized by CORDEL and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). 

Transport of Low Enriched Uranium (August 2020)

This report prepared by the World Nuclear Association’s Transport Working Group aims to give stakeholders in the transport supply chain an overview of how LEU is transported, and how risks are mitigated and liabilities managed. The report focuses on maritime transport, which is a vital mode for international movement of LEU.

Comparison of pressure vessel fatigue codified design rules based on S-N approach (July 2020)

This report, the first of a planned series of four, reviews and compares the current code and standard requirements of major nuclear design codes in the area of fatigue analysis and design rules based on the S-N approach. The focus of this comparison is Class 1 vessels of Light Water Reactor (LWR) plants.

CORDEL Safety Classification for I&C Systems in Nuclear Power Plants - Current Status & Difficulties (update 4 March 2020)

Classification of structures, systems and components (SSC) acts as part of the defence in depth approach as an essential task in the overall life cycle of a nuclear power plant. The classification of SSCs specifies their importance to safety, according to the consequences of their failure to perform when required.

Making Use of the Reference Plant Concept for Licensing New Nuclear Units (30 September 2019)

The World Nuclear Association report, Making Use of the Reference Plant Concept for Licensing New Nuclear Units looks into the use of a reference plant for regulatory purposes in newbuild projects.

Safety Classification for I&C Systems in Nuclear Power Plants: Comparison of Definitions of Key Concepts 2019 revision (30 September 2019)

This report investigates the differences between the definitions of key concepts used in different regulatory frameworks.

Countering counterfeit, fraudulent and suspect items in the nuclear supply chain (27 August 2019)

Describes the steps taken to prevent the infiltration of fakes and other non-conforming parts and equipment into nuclear power plants. 

Adapting export controls on nuclear technology and information transfer to the challenges of cyberspace (27 August 2019)

As cyberspace has opened up the electronic transmission of information and data a shift in the focus of export controls on cross-border transfer of nuclear technology is called for. 

Non-Linear Analysis Design Rules Part 2a (29 July 2019)

This report, Part 2a, specifies two benchmarks for non-linear analysis of nozzles under pressure, thermal and piping loads

CORDEL Strategic Plan 2019 (14 March 2019)

This Strategic Plan outlines the scope of activity and direction of the Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing (CORDEL) Working Group during the next five-year period.

Methodology to Manage Material and Waste from Nuclear Decommissioning (22 February 2019)

This report serves as a practical guide to decommissioning nuclear plants, allowing both established nuclear stakeholders and those new to the industry to learn from past experience.

Lesson-learning in Nuclear Construction Projects (18 April 2018)

This report reviews and analyses recent nuclear power plant construction projects to identify good practice and lessons learnt.

CORDEL Defence-in-Depth and Diversity: Challenges Related to I&C Architecture (10 April 2018)

This report is the first in the series on Defence-in-Depth and Diversity, and builds upon the work carried out in the series of reports on Safety Classification for I&C Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

An Effective Export Control Regime for a Global Industry (4 April 2018)

An effective export control regime for a global industry considers how the strategic export control regime should be streamlined and modernized to facilitate lawful and compliant international trade in nuclear materials and technology and information exchange. 

Implementation of the Design Authority Within a Nuclear Operating Organization (03/2017)

A supplement to the CORDEL report “Design Knowledge and Design Change Management in the Operation of Nuclear Fleets”

Internationally Standardized Reporting on the Sustainable Development Performance of Uranium Mining and Processing Sites (03/17)

The World Nuclear Association has developed an internationally standardized reporting tool to understand the sustainable development performance of uranium mining and processing sites.

Non-Linear Analysis Design Rules: Part 1 Code Comparison (02/2017)

The “Non-Linear Analysis Design Rules; Part 1: Code Comparison” report, reviews and compares the current code requirements in non-linear analysis methodologies.

Nuclear Power Economics and Project Structuring (01/2017)

This report highlights that new nuclear build is justified in many countries on the strength of today’s economic criteria and identifies the key risks associated with a nuclear power project and how these may be managed to support a business case for nuclear investment.

Optimized Capacity: Global Trends and Issues (12/2015)

This report draws upon data collected in the IAEA PRIS database to present a snapshot of the performance of the world’s operating nuclear power reactors as well as a breakdown of the principal causes of capacity loss for the period 2010-2012.

CORDEL Facilitating International Licensing of Small Modular Reactors (08/2015)

This report looks at the various issues (positive and negative) that could arise in the licensing process for SMRs, applying the CORDEL concept of a standardized design approval process.

Good Practice in the Compliance and Licensing of Nuclear Exports (08/2015)

In this report, the World Nuclear Association maps the strategic export control landscape and identifies examples of good practice by suppliers and export control authorities. 

CORDEL Design Knowledge and Design Change Management in the Operation of Nuclear Fleets (04/2015)

The operating lifetime of a nuclear plant spans several decades. During this time, the plant may undergo design changes as a result of experience feedback, new knowledge or requirements, and safety reviews.

Swaps in the International Fuel Market (04/2015)

Trade in nuclear fuel materials and services takes place between producers and consumers spread across a range of countries worldwide. To carry out such trade efficiently often requires that quantities of nuclear materials are exchanged, or ‘swapped’. 

CORDEL: Certification of NDE Personnel (10/2014)

This report looks at and compares the current code requirements in the certification of NDE personnel for the major nuclear design codes.

CORDEL: Strategic Plan 2014-2018 (01/2014)

This Strategic Plan is to outline the general directions and activities CORDEL plans to undertake during the period 20145-2018.

Inside the Black Box - Exploring Nuclear Power Forecast Assumptions (04/2013)

This report reviews some of the best-known recent energy scenario studies using integrated models and maps the variations between studies and seeks to account for them.

CORDEL: Aviation Report (01/2013)

This report, written by CORDEL's Design Change Management Task Force explores design licensing and design change management procedures in the civil aviation industry.

Licensing and Project Development of New Nuclear Plants (01/2013)

This report explores the relationship between licensing and regulatory systems on the one hand and important commercial project decisions on the other. 

Structuring Nuclear Projects for Success (09/2012)

This report describes the key risks facing those who are looking to build new nuclear plants and then demonstrates that a good structure is essential for project success.

Ensuring Security of Supply (09/2011)

The current world market provides a considerable degree of security of supply, and has never to date failed to ensure continued operation of nuclear energy generation worldwide.

Lifecycle GHG Emissions of Electricity Generation (07/2011)

This report provides a comparison of the lifecycle GHG emissions of different electricity generation facilities and the relative contribution of the electrical generation industry to climate change.

Greater Efficiency in Low-Level Material Management (02/2011)

This report emphasizes the importance of converging towards greater efficiency in the management of low-level radioactive material. This requires consistent strategies and approaches between countries for proper reuse, recycling and disposal.

Russian Secondary Supplies (02/2010)

This report examined the need for Russian secondary supplies from the time of the report until 2013 (which was fairly well known) and the continued need for secondary supplies after the HEU deal expired in 2013.

CORDEL: Standardization of Reactor Designs (01/2010)

In this paper, the CORDEL Group proposes a conceptual three-phase programme introducing a mutual acceptance and eventually internationally valid design approvals for standardized reactor designs.

CORDEL: Nuclear Standards Harmonization (01/2008)

The achievement of harmonization of nuclear safety standards could facilitate the emergence of a global market that offers a choice of a small number of reactor types that are recognized by regulators as safe and technologically mature.