Countries O-S


Pakistan has a small nuclear power program, with 1355 MWe net capacity, but is increasing this substantially with new reactors under construction. Because Pakistan is outside the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty due to its weapons program, it is largely excluded from trade in nuclear plant or materials, which hinders its development of civil nuclear energy.


Poland plans to have nuclear power from about 2033 as part of a diverse energy portfolio, moving it away from heavy dependence on coal and imported gas.



Romania has two nuclear reactors generating about 15-20% of its electricity. Romania's first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1996. Its second started up in May 2007. The country has plans for two more units.

Russia: Nuclear Fuel Cycle

A major increase in uranium mine production is planned. There is increasing international involvement in parts of Russia's fuel cycle. Exports are a major Russian policy and economic objective.


Russia: Nuclear Power

Russia is moving steadily forward with plans for an expanded role of nuclear energy, including development of new reactor technology. Exports of nuclear goods and services are a major Russian policy and economic objective.

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia currently plans to construct two large nuclear power reactors. Plans for small reactors for desalination are well advanced on two fronts.


Slovakia has four nuclear reactors generating half of its electricity and two more under construction. Slovakia's first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1972.


Slovenia has shared a nuclear power reactor with Croatia since 1981. It has further capacity under consideration.

South Africa

South Africa has two nuclear reactors generating 5% of its electricity. South Africa's first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1984. Government commitment to the future of nuclear energy has been strong, but financial constraints are severe.

South Korea

South Korea is among the world's most prominent nuclear energy countries, and exports its technology widely. Today 24 reactors provide about one-third of South Korea's electricity from 23 GWe of plant.


Spain generates about a fifth of its electricity from nuclear power. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1968. There are plans for renewed uranium mining. Government commitment to nuclear energy has been uncertain, but has firmed up recently.


Sweden has seven operating nuclear power reactors providing about 40% of its electricity. Sweden had a tax discriminating against nuclear power – about 0.75 Euro cents/kWh, making up about one-third of the operating cost of nuclear power. Wind and biomass are subsidised by about three times that. The tax was abolished in 2016 and fully phased out by 2019.


Switzerland has four operational nuclear reactors. Two large new units were planned. However, in June 2011 parliament resolved not to replace any reactors, and hence to phase out nuclear power by 2034.