Turkey has had plans for establishing nuclear power generation since 1970. Turkey's plans have included nuclear power plants at Sinop and Akkuyu
Ukraine is heavily dependent on nuclear energy - it has 15 reactors generating about half of its electricity. The government plans to maintain nuclear share in electricity production to 2030, which will involve substantial new build.
The UAE is embarking upon a nuclear power program. It has accepted a bid from a South Korean consortium to build four commercial nuclear power reactors by 2020. Construction of the first unit started in July 2012.
Most of the current fleet of reactors in the UK is due to retire by 2023. The country has full fuel cycle facilities including major reprocessing plants. The first of some 19 GWe of new-generation plants are expected to be on line in the mdidle of the 2020s.
The USA is expanding its nuclear fuel production capacity with up to three new enrichment plants likely to begin operation before 2020. Almost all the uranium used in US commercial reactors is imported, with about half of it coming from Russian weapons-grade uranium downblended to low enriched uranium in Russia.
The USA has over 100 nuclear reactors providing around 19% of its electricity. These have a high level of performance. With deregulation, both ownership and operation of these is becoming concentrated.
The government is heavily involved through safety and environmental regulations, R&D funding, and setting national energy goals. The commitment to nuclear power as part of the USA's long-term energy strategy continues with the Obama administration.
Uzbekistan has considerable mineral deposits, including uranium. Today, most uranium is mined in the middle of the country, with Navoi as the centre, linked to mines by railway.
Vietnam has considered establishing nuclear power generation since 1995, and firm proposals surfaced in 2006. Russia is offering to finance and build 2000 MWe of nuclear capacity. Japan is making a similar offer for another 2000 MWe.